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Proto-Umbric, sometimes called Proto-Avesto-Umbric (PAU), is the reconstructed ancestor of the Umbric languages and, by convention, a daughter of Proto-Enkean-Umbric. 

Proto-Umbric

(Proto-Avesto-Umbric)

Pronunciation [ˈumbʲeɾaː]
Period 10,000 BK - 5,500 BK
Spoken in Southernmost coast of Avesta
Total speakers Approximately 8,000 (10.000 BK) - 64.000 (5.500 BK)
Writing system none
Classification Umbric
Typology
Basic word order SO, SOV, SVO
Morphology fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Credits
Created by Egerius

    

HistoryEdit

- to do -

Proto-Umbric has been spoken since 10,000 BK, on the southernmost coast of Avesta, only limited by a river. After the southward expansion of the Umbric people, which were thereby ruling over the southernmost part of the continent, the language is known as Avesto-Umbric
TelesMap10000BKeverycivilization zpsa4d2228b.png~modified Egerius 12K-10K Proto-Umbric

The Urheimat of Proto-Umbric (dark blue) in 12,000 BK and its expansion until 10,000 BK (medium blue) in relation to the planet Teles and other languages

After more than four millenia of expansion into the north, Proto-Umbric split into a southern and a northern variety around 5,500 BK, with the advent of a feminine-masculine distionction and dialectal variation in Northern and Southern Umbric. 

Avesto-Umbric ceased to exist in 5.500 B.K., with the advent of the Umbric syllabilary and the South-North split.


PhonologyEdit

- to do, in progress -

The reconstructed phoneme inventory of proto-Umbric resembles Proto-Indo-European to some degree.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial

Dental

Alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Labiovelar

Nasal

Plain

Palatalised

Velarised

m

mʲ

mʷ

n

nʲ

nʷ

ŋ

ŋʲ

ŋʷ

Plosive

Plain

Aspirated

Palatalised

Labialised

p *b

pʰ *bʰ

pʲ *bʲ

pʷ *bʷ

t *d

tʰ *dʰ

tʲ *dʲ

tʷ *dʷ

k *g

kʰ *gʰ

kʲ *gʲ

  *kʷ *gʷ

kʷʰ *gʷʰ

Fricative

Plain

Palatalised

Labialised

 

s *z

sʲ *zʲ

sʷ *zʷ

Trill

Plain

Palatalised

Velarised

r

rʲ

rʷ

Approximant

j

w

Lateral

Plain

Palatalised

Velarised

l

lʲ

lʷ

  

Notes

  1. Proto-Umbric *[ŋ] was an allophone of */n/ before velar and labiovelar polosives

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i iː u uː
Mid e eː

 

o oː
Open a aː

Notes: ​*[i] and *[u] are allophones of */j/ and */w/ between consonants.

Long *[iː] *[uː] are positional allophones of */j/ */w/, found between labials and another consonant.

Stress is always on the first syllable.

Diphthongs

PhonotacticsEdit

- To be added soon -

OrthographyEdit

As writing has not been invented until 5,500 BK, there are no Proto-Umbric texts; Proto-Umbric exists only by reconstruction, which is recorded in IPA.

GrammarEdit

- to do, will be work in progress for quite some time - 

NounsEdit

Nouns can be animate (feminine/masculine) or inanimate (neuter).

Nouns decline in case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative and vocative) and number (singular, dual and plural).

Animate DeclensionEdit

The nouns of the animate declension are feminine or masculine.

Animate
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -eːs -ej -es
Vocative -eː -ej -es
Genitive -es -aʷsʲm -esʲum
Dative -esʲe -eʲoʷs -bʰomʲs
Accusative -eːm -ejm -enʷs
Ablative -eːt -bʲus -bʰuːs
Locative -eːj -oʲsuːs -ojsu
Instrumental -eːh -bomiːs -etʰ

Inanimate DeclensionEdit

The nouns of the inanimate declension have neuter gender only. Nominative and accusative have the same form, as these nouns can only be objects.

Inanimate
Singular Dual Plural

Nominative/

Accusative

- - -
Vocative - - -
Genitive - - -
Dative - - -
Ablative - - -
Locative - - -
Instrumental - - -


Athematic Consonant-stem DeclensionEdit

The nouns of the Consonant-stem Declension (or Consonant-Declension) can be masculine/feminine or neuter. This declension is a collection of many different noun classes which end in various consonants (mostly -n, -r, -s).

Animate Inanimate
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative - - - - - -
Vocative - - - - - -
Genitive - - - - - -
Dative - - - - - -
Accusative - - - - - -
Ablative - - - - - -
Locative - - - - - -
Instrumental - - - - - -


Athematic Glide-DeclensionEdit

The nouns of the Glide-Declension can be masculine/feminine or neuter, their stems end in *j-, *w-.

Animate Inanimate
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative - - - - - -
Vocative - - - - - -
Genitive - - - - - -
Dative - - - - - -
Accusative - - - - - -
Ablative - - - - - -
Locative - - - - - -
Instrumental - - - - - -


VerbsEdit

Irregular VerbsEdit

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are inflected either in the fashion of the animate/inanimate declensions or like the Consonant-Stem-Declension.


PrepositionsEdit

Prefixes and SuffixesEdit

SyntaxEdit

Phonological historyEdit

The following phonological processes (or sound changes) have been sorted chronologically.

Proto-AvesticEdit

Proto-UmbricEdit

Sample wordsEdit

NounsEdit

AdjectivesEdit

VerbsEdit

Egerius (talk) 13:48, May 26, 2014 (UTC)

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