|High||/i/ i||/ɨ/ y||/u/ u|
|Mid||/e/ e||/ə/ ə||/o/ o|
|Low||/æ/ æ||/ɒ/ a|
All Vowels can be nasalized.
|Nasal||/m/ m||/n/ n||/ɲ/ ni|
|Plosive||/p p'/ p p'||/t t'/ t t'||/t͡ʃ t͡ʃ'/ c c'||/k k'/ k k'||/ʔ/ q|
|Fricative||/ɸ β/ f v||/s z/ s z||/ʃ ʒ/ sh zh||/x ɣ/ x rr||/h/ h|
|Approximant||/w/ w||/ɹ ɺ/ r l||/j/ j|
It can be reconstructed that stress could be only in the three last syllables of the word, It was normally penultimate unless either the ultimate or the antepenultimate was a heavy syllable (i.e. had coda consonants). If both the ultimate and the antepenultimate where heavy (and the penultimate wasn't) the antepenultimate was preferred.
To clarify (H stands for heavy and L for light, " marks the stress)
All light syllables, penultimate is stressed
If the penultimate is heavy it will always be stressed
In the case it wasn't heavy, other syllables could receive the stress:
If both the antepenultimate and the ultimate syllable were heavy, stress felt on the antepenultimate.
Interestingly, nasal vowels make a syllable heavy, even when open.
PSG had 6 cases: Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Genitive, Locative and Lative.
|Accusative||May be marked by vowel alternations|
Vowels are fronted to form the accusative.
y → i
u, o, ə → e
a → æ
It works the same with nasalized vowels.
Low animacy nouns may have i, e or æ in both the nominative and the accusative, therefore not distinguishing them.
Some prepositions also exist (xnuhsh, kỹh, ju, p'ã, cõ; for example). These interact with different case forms to express different shades of meaning,
Definiteness can be expressed with the definite article ə̃pi.