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Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky
ydtobogȧŋ tiaka
Ydtobogȧntiaky claim
Pronunciation /ɨθ.to.ˈβo.ɣaŋ ˈtɪ̯ɑ.kɑ/
Period ca. 10000BK - 6000BK
Spoken in Ytdobogȧn Peninsula, Amalan
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system None
Classification Ydtobogȧntiaky
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Fusional
Alignment Tripartite
Credits
Created by Sḿtuval

Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky (from ydtobogȧŋ "central (neuter)" and tiaky "languages/mouths") is agreed on by most linguists to be the ancestor of all languages of the Ydtobogȧntiaky language family. The language became widespread and due to this was subject to extreme dialectical variation and eventually separated into multiple different languages.

HistoryEdit

It originated on the coast of the Ydtobogȧn Peninsula in Amalan and acquired many speakers over time. After 8000BK, regional differences in pronunciation, grammar, and expressions caused dialects to form which would later become independent languages. In 5700BK, the first writing system began to take form, created by Proto-Matlapogiogân (a descendant of Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky) speakers. It used pictographs, and spread to other languages after becoming an alphabetic system (called Ydtobogȧndeki) around 4000BK.

PhonologyEdit

Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky did not make a distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants, although some of its descendents do. Except /h/, of which the existence is still being disputed, all plosives have voiced allophones before a voiced consonant and all fricatives have voiceless allophones before voiceless consonants. This is what led to voicing distinction in later languages, as sound changes in some reduced many consonant clusters to single phonemes. Both tables have romanizations for each phoneme (letters without asterisks) that will be used to represent reconstructed words.

Reconstructed Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky Consonant Inventory
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal *m m *n n *ŋ ŋ
Plosive *p p *t t *c ki *k k
Fricative *β b *ð d *ʝ gi *ɣ g *h h
Approximant *ɹ r *j i *w u
Lateral *l l *ʎ li
Reconstructed Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky Vowel Inventory
Front Central Back
High *i *i: i ī *ɨ *ɨ: y ȳ *u *u: u ū
Mid *e *e: e ē *o *o: o ō
Low *a *a: ȧ ǡ *ɑ *ɑ: a ā

VerbsEdit

Person and number were not marked in Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky verbs. Unlike nouns, verbs had only one inflectional paradigm. Other suffixes were added after the transitivity suffix, which was usually a single word-final vowel. The only verbs that didn't mark transitivity like this were *ȧt and *hoik, intransitive and transitive copulative verbs. The marking of transitivity disappeared in most later languages due to nouns marking ergative, accusative, and absolutive cases. In some cases, transitivity became a lexically marked quality, as the original suffixes were heavily eroded.

Verbal DistinctionEdit

Verbs distinguished five things: transitivity, tense, aspect, mood, and voice. Before Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky split into different languages, the formerly agglutinative style of marking these five qualities eroded and merged into something more fusional. This was mostly due to vowel harmony, which in some languages influenced the usage of apophony to mark aspect, mood, and (sometimes) transitivity in verbs.

The three levels of transitivity were: intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive.

The three tenses are: anterior past, past, and non-past. The anterior past was used to express the pluperfect and the remote past. The past was used to express the perfect and the recent past. The non-past expressed the present or future.

In some cases, the past expressed the present, like in the reconstructed sentence betȧdit tib tod ageu ȧtǡnt kōmminaiēmpybȧty tod tēh tip peltigtemīnaubk detoma, which mean "I'd go there, but there may be predatory animals near there during my arrival". The past tense is used in betȧdit (go-INTR-OPT-PST) to express an event before the hypothetical arrival of the speaker at the described location (which would have been in the future), even though the event (which is the beginning of the speaker's hypothetical journey) is in present tense.

The three aspects are: repetitive, initial, and progressive. The repetitive expressed habituality and iterativity. The initial expressed the inchoative and prospective aspects. The progressive expressed both the continuous and the progressive.

The six moods are: indicative, subjunctive, optative, conditional, potential, and imperative. The interrogative was not considered a separate mood, and unlike other moods was expressed using the auxiliary adverb kipa.

The three voices (there may have been more, though) are: active, passive, and antipassive. There may have been a reflexive voice. However, reciprocal expressions were rare and not regarded as a distinct voice in verbal inflection.

ConjugationEdit

The original suffixes used from 10000BK to 9000BK gave way to similar, shorter, fusional suffixes. Those were the basis of conjugational suffixes in later languages and are the only ones able to be reconstructed.

Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky verbs conjugate according to only one paradigm and are usually completely regular. Person and number were not marked in verbs, and in other related languages aren't either.

Very few verbs are irregular, although many became slightly or heavily irregular. Some examples of moderately irregular verbs are ȧt, hoik, timetēr, dīmȧt.

Conjugation occurs almost completely without variation, as the suffixes are simply added to the end of the root of the verb. Here, all of the possible conjugational suffixes are shown in a series of tables. AP stands for anterior past, P stands for past, and NP stands for non-past.

Active FormsEdit

Verbs conjugated for active voice are slightly shorter than for other voices because active voice, unlike the others, is unmarked.

Active Intransitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative ȧreuōr ȧreuōt ȧreuō ȧrer ȧret ȧre ȧreintr ȧreidt ȧreint
Subjunctive aiauōr aiauōt aiauō ȧiȧr ȧiȧt ȧiȧ ǡntr ǡdt ǡnt
Optative ȧdiuōt ȧdiuō ȧdit ȧdi ȧdīdt ȧdīnt
Conditional auōt auō ȧt ȧ ȧidt ȧint
Potential ahuuōr ahuuōt ahuuō ahur ahut ahu ahuintr ahuidt ahuint
Imperative ȧneuō ȧne ȧneint
Active Transitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative ireuōr ireuōt ireuō irer iret ire ireintr ireidt ireint
Subjunctive yiauōr yiauōt yiauō yiȧr yiȧt yiȧ yiȧintr yiȧidt yiȧint
Optative ydiuōt ydiuō ydit ydi ydīdt ydīnt
Conditional uuōt uuō yt y yidt yint
Potential uhuuōr uhuuōt uhuuō uhur uhut uhu uhuintr uhuidt uhuint
Imperative yneuō yne yneint
Active Ditransitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative oreuōr oreuōt oreuō orer oret ore oreintr oreidt oreint
Subjunctive oiauōr oiauōt oiauō oiȧr oiȧt oiȧ oiȧintr oiȧidt oiȧint
Optative odiuōt odiuō odit odi odīdt odīnt
Conditional ouōt ouō ot o oidt oint
Potential ohuuōr ohuuōt ohuuō ohur ohut ohu ohuintr ohuidt ohuint
Imperative oneuō one oneint

Passive FormsEdit

The passive suffix was either *-gud or *-ud, depending on whether the previous suffixes ended in a vowel or not. In some, cases vowel harmony is prominent, changing a nearby <ȧ> to <a> and <y> to <u>.

Passive Intransitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative ȧreuōrud ȧreuōtud ȧreuōgud ȧrerud ȧretud ȧregud ȧreintrud ȧreidtud ȧreintud
Subjunctive aiauōrud aiauōtud aiauōgud ȧiȧrud ȧiȧtud aiagud ǡntrud ǡdtud ǡntud
Optative ȧdiuōtud ȧdiuōgud ȧditud ȧdigud ȧdīdtud ȧdīntud
Conditional auōtud auōgud ȧtud agud ȧidtud ȧintud
Potential ahuuōrud ahuuōtud ahuuōgud ahurud ahutud ahugud ahuintrud ahuidtud ahuintud
Imperative ȧneuōgud ȧnegud ȧneintud
Passive Transitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative ireuōrud ireuōtud ireuōgud irerud iretud iregud ireintrud ireidtud ireintud
Subjunctive yiauōrud yiauōtud yiauōgud yiȧrud yiȧtud yiagud yiȧintrud yiȧidtud yiȧintud
Optative ydiuōtud ydiuōgud yditud ydigud ydīdtud ydīntud
Conditional uuōtud uuōgud ytud ugud yidtud yintud
Potential uhuuōrud uhuuōtud uhuuōgud uhurud uhutud uhugud uhuintrud uhuidtud uhuintud
Imperative yneuōgud ynegud yneintud
Passive Ditransitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative oreuōrud oreuōtud oreuōgud orerud oretud oregud oreintrud oreidtud oreintud
Subjunctive oiauōrud oiauōtud oiauōgud oiȧrud oiȧtud oiagud oiȧintrud oiȧidtud oiȧintud
Optative odiuōtud odiuōgud oditud odigud odīdtud odīntud
Conditional ouōtud ouōgud otud ogud oidtud ointud
Potential ohuuōrud ohuuōtud ohuuōgud ohurud ohutud ohugud ohuintrud ohuidtud ohuintud
Imperative oneuōgud onegud oneintud

Antipassive FormsEdit

The antipassive suffix was either *-iēm or *-ēm, depending on whether the previous suffixes ended in a vowel or not. In some cases (although more uncommon than in the passive), vowel harmony is prominent, changing a nearby <y> to <i>.

Antipassive Intransitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative ȧreuōrēm ȧreuōtēm ȧreuōiēm ȧrerēm ȧretēm ȧreiēm ȧreintrēm ȧreidtēm ȧreintēm
Subjunctive aiauōrēm aiauōtēm aiauōiēm ȧiȧrēm ȧiȧtēm ǡēm ǡntrēm ǡdtēm ǡntēm
Optative ȧdiuōtēm ȧdiuōiēm ȧditēm ȧdiēm ȧdīdtēm ȧdīntēm
Conditional auōtēm auōiēm ȧtēm ȧiēm ȧidtēm ȧintēm
Potential ahuuōrēm ahuuōtēm ahuuōiēm ahurēm ahutēm ahuēm ahuintrēm ahuidtēm ahuintēm
Imperative ȧneuōiēm ȧneiēm ȧneintiēm
Antipassive Transitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative ireuōrēm ireuōtēm ireuōiēm irerēm iretēm ireiēm ireintrēm ireidtēm ireintēm
Subjunctive yiauōrēm yiauōtēm yiauōiēm yiȧrēm yiȧtēm yiȧiēm yiȧintrēm yiȧidtēm yiȧintēm
Optative ydiuōtēm ydiuōiēm yditēm ydiēm ydīdtēm ydīntēm
Conditional uuōtēm uuōiēm ytēm iiēm yidtēm yintēm
Potential uhuuōrēm uhuuōtēm uhuuōiēm uhurēm uhutēm uhuēm uhuintrēm uhuidtēm uhuintēm
Imperative yneuōiēm yneiēm yneintēm
Antipassive Ditransitive Suffixes
Habitual AP Habitual P Habitual NP Initial AP Initial P Initial NP Progressive AP Progressive P Progressive NP
Indicative oreuōrēm oreuōtēm oreuōiēm orerēm oretēm oreiēm oreintrēm oreidtēm oreintēm
Subjunctive oiauōrēm oiauōtēm oiauōiēm oiȧrēm oiȧtēm oiȧiēm oiȧintrēm oiȧidtēm oiȧintēm
Optative odiuōtēm odiuōiēm oditēm odiēm odīdtēm odīntēm
Conditional ouōtēm ouōiēm otēm oiēm oidtēm ointēm
Potential ohuuōrēm ohuuōtēm ohuuōiēm ohurēm ohutēm ohuēm ohuintrēm ohuidtēm ohuintēm
Imperative oneuōiēm oneiēm oneintēm

Non-Finite FormsEdit

Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky had a somewhat regular method of deriving non-finite forms, such as participles, from verbs.

ParticiplesEdit

Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky had a set of participles, one for each tense-voice combination, of which there were nine. Participles were made by adding a suffix to an unconjugated verb.

Sometimes, participles were used to make derived nouns from verbs. This form was made by deleting the word-final <a>. The passive participles also changed the word-final <d> to <n>, i.e. ridiguda (participle suffix) > ridigun (nominalizing suffix).

The anterior past participles corresponded to the perfect/past participles of other languages. The past participles corresponded to the present participles of other languages. The non-past participles corresponded to the future participles of other languages.

Participle Suffixes
Anterior Past Past Non-Past
Passive ridiguda deloguda minaguda
Antipassive ridiēma deloiēma minaiēma

InfinitivesEdit

Similar to the participles, all three tenses "shifted" later in time when used to described infinitive. The anterior past represented the perfect, the past represented the present, and the non-past represented the future.

Infinitive Suffixes
Anterior Past Past Non-Past
Passive erud etud egud
Antipassive erēm etēm eiēm

Examples:

toiŋguireint tia mīretēm "I feel like eating"

iŋkireuō tia emuegetud "I like to be loved"

kibreadireidt rǡk bepetud ageu ytoedire ty tȧdierireuō hēa tȧibiȧŋ heta "They wanted to be seen, but I'm starting to figure out he doesn't have eyes"

NegativesEdit

A negative verb was made with the prefix *tȧh- before vowels (except for <i>, <u>, <ī>, <ū>, and <ȧ>) and *tȧ- before consonants. Before a <ȧ>, the negative prefix became *tǡ- and the word-initial <ȧ> was omitted. If the negative prefix was before a <ī> or <ū>, the <ī> or <ū> was shortened to a semivocalic <i> or <u>.

In phrases such as "He didn't take any food" or "They don't have flowers", a negative adjective made from ībia "one" and the negative prefix was used. For example, in tȧdierireint rǡk tȧibiȧb ȧroged "They don't have flowers", tȧibiȧb (which really means "not one") is used with the accusative singular of the word for flower (ȧroged from ȧrogel) instead of using only the accusative plural. So, the phrase can be glossed as NEG-have-TR.IND.PROG.NPST.ACT 3PL.ERG NEG-one-F.ACC flower-ACC.SG, or "They don't have not one flower", and is technically a double negative.

NounsEdit

Nouns declined for eight cases and distinguished between singular and plural. Nouns had five inflection paradigms. Each noun is assigned one of three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Sometimes the ending of a noun gives away its gender; However, this is not always the case.

Nouns in the Lexicon section are in ergative singular form.

First DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always masculine.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative n ni kroen kroeni
Accusative d du kroed kroedu
Absolutive i iy kroei kroeiy
Dative t ti kroet kroeti
Genitive b be kroeb kroebe
Instrumental h ho kroeh kroeho
Locative dt dte kroedt kroedte
Ablative r na kroer kroena

In first declension nouns with a root-final long vowel (i.e. bōn), the long vowel is shortened in the absolutive singular (i.e. boi) because a long vowel cannot precede a semivowel in the same syllable.

Second DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always feminine.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative m mi m mi
Accusative b bu b bu
Absolutive u uy nou uy
Dative d di d di
Genitive u ue nou ue
Instrumental g go g go
Locative bk bke bk bke
Ablative l la l la

In second declension nouns with a root-final long vowel (i.e. diunām), the long vowel is shortened in the absolutive singular and the genitive singular (i.e. diunau) because a long vowel cannot precede a semivowel in the same syllable.

Third DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always neuter.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative a y heta hety
Accusative a u heta hetu
Absolutive o uy heto hetuy
Dative ȧ i hetȧ heti
Genitive e ie hete hetie
Instrumental o uo heto hetuo
Locative de het hetde
Ablative ar ā hetar hetā

In third declension nouns with a root-final long vowel (i.e. mēa), the long vowel is NOT shortened in the accusative plural and the dative plural (i.e. mēu, which is pronounced /ˈme:.u/) because the long vowel maintains constant syllable length in this declension.

Fourth DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are either masculine or feminine.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative l li l li
Accusative d du d du
Absolutive t ty t ty
Dative t ti t ti
Genitive u ue kau ue
Instrumental r ro r ro
Locative gt gte gt gte
Ablative k ga k ga

In fourth declension nouns with a root-final long vowel (i.e. bonēl), the long vowel is shortened in the genitive singular (i.e. boneu) because a long vowel cannot precede a semivowel in the same syllable.

Fifth DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension can be any gender.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative k ki dek deki
Accusative g gu deg degu
Absolutive b by deb deby
Dative r ri der deri
Genitive p pe dep depe
Instrumental h ho deh deho
Locative d de ded dede
Ablative r na der dena

PronounsEdit

Pronouns declined much like fifth declension nouns.

Reconstructed Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky Ergative Pronouns
Person Singular Plural
First tia deuk(exclusive) / uȧk(inclusive)
Second lia bȧek
Third hēa rǡk

There are also two demonstrative pronouns. ta means this/that and tok means these/those.

As you can see, the singular pronouns end in -a, while the plural pronouns end in -k. The plural pronouns decline exactly like singular fifth declension nouns, which end in -k in the ergative singular. However, the singular pronouns replace the -a with a fifth declension noun ending in other cases.

Examples:

bepireint tia bȧeg (I see you(plural))

īuadoret hēa rǡg tir (He has given them to me)

kipa tierahu lib (Can you(singular) move?)

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives declined for eight cases like nouns, but sometimes did not distinguish between singular and plural. Unlike nouns, adjectives only had one inflectional paradigm. Adjectives also decline for gender, and most suffixes are similar. Adjectives and adverbs are not distinguished in Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky.

Short FormEdit

Adjectives had a short form and a long form. The short form ends in -a (ergative singular) and is declined like a third declension noun. The short form was used when the adjective/adverb described a verb or in statements such as hoikreint hēa poka (It is blue). The short form had singular and plural forms. When describing a verb, the short form was always used in the ergative/accusative and was used in the plural ergative when the agent or subject of the verb was more than one person/thing.

Long FormEdit

The long form ended in -ȧn (ergative masculine) and was declined using the suffixes in the table below. The long form was used when the adjective/adverb described a noun or another adjective/adverb, unless the described adjective/adverb described a verb. Unlike the short form, this form did not mark plurality.

Adjectives in the Lexicon section are in short form. Adverbs are listed as adjectives.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Example (M.)
Ergative ȧn ȧm ȧŋ dātȧn
Accusative ȧd ȧb ȧg dātȧd
Absolutive ȧh ȧh ȧti dātȧh
Dative ȧt ȧp ȧk dātȧt
Genitive ȧi ȧu ȧu dātȧi
Instrumental ȧr ȧr ȧh dātȧr
Locative ȧgt ȧgt ȧgk dātȧgt
Ablative ȧu ȧdi ȧr dātȧu

LexiconEdit

The following is an incomplete list of the Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky lexicon.

Reconstructed Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky Lexicon
Reconstructed Word Part of Speech Translation(s)
ȧt verb be (used with locative)
hoik verb be/exist
idi verb break
heta noun (neuter) eye
tia pronoun I
deuk pronoun we (exclusive)
uȧk pronoun we (inclusive)
bȧil noun (feminine) head
lia pronoun you (singular)
bȧek pronoun you (plural)
hēa pronoun he/she/it
rǡk pronoun they
ta pronoun this/that
tok pronoun these/those
ydtoba noun (neuter) center
ydtoboga adjective central
tiaka noun (neuter) language/mouth
dolta adjective yellow
pȧliana adjective white
egara adjective red
tīda adjective orange
tenōa adjective light green
nīua adjective dark green
tlǡba adjective black
hoilinoga adjective light blue
poka adjective dark blue
kroen noun (masculine) home/structure
ura noun (neuter) arm/hand
iun noun (masculine) rock (countable)
tanem noun (feminine) stone (material)
tuh verb speak
ubyta noun (neuter) horse
pogia noun (neuter) land
idoim noun (feminine) finger/toe
eŋok noun (neuter) person
ȧbāryl noun (feminine) life
dek noun (masculine) track/mark
kōn verb hunt
kōtu verb attack/fight
nȧba adjective bad/poor
dāta adjective good/well
ty particle relativizer (that, who)
midta adjective small, little
tudia adjective large, big
kibread verb want, desire, need
goent verb greet, welcome
ibiŋa adjective north
tuela adjective south

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