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Proto-Yŋòrtuèian
yŋòrtuèiana ròkò
4000BK p-yŋo
Pronunciation /ɨ.ŋɒr.tʊ̯ə.ˈja.na ˈrɒ.kɒ/
Period ca. 6000BK – 2500BK
Spoken in Southern Amalan
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Ydtobogȧndeki
Classification Yŋòrtuèian, Ydtobogȧntiaky
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Fusional
Alignment Tripartite
Credits
Created by Sḿtuval

PhonologyEdit

Proto-Yŋòrtuèian did not make a distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants. Many vowels changed, and some new vowels emerged from the old ones. In addition, all four fricatives lenited, leaving only one fricative and adding a new consonant /r/. Both tables have romanizations for each phoneme.

Reconstructed Proto-Yŋòrtuèian Consonant Inventory
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal *m m *n n *ŋ ŋ
Plosive *p p *t t *k k
Fricative *x h
Approximant *j i *w u
Trill *r r
Lateral *l l
Reconstructed Proto-Yŋòrtuèian Vowel Inventory
Front Central Back
High *i i *ɨ y *u u
Mid *e e *ə è *o o
Low *a a *ɒ ò

GrammarEdit

The ablative case was replaced in part by postpositions. Also, the masculine and feminine genders merged into a common gender. Due to this, only some suffixes from each of three of the inflectional paradigms were used in a new merged inflectional paradigm.

VerbsEdit

Unlike nouns, verbs had only one inflectional paradigm. Unlike most other parts of the language, Proto-Yŋòrtuèian derived its tenses, aspects, moods, and verbal suffixes from Proto-Pogeduimogan, instead of from Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky. This was mostly due to the relatively late era the language was spoken in.

The marking of transitivity disappeared in Proto-Yŋòrtuèian. In some cases, however, transitivity became a lexically marked quality, as the original suffixes were kept but heavily eroded.

More verbs than before are irregular, and due to sound change (and common usage in some verbs) many regular verbs became moderately or heavily irregular. Some examples of heavily irregular verbs are hèh, tematel, rimat. Unlike in other related languages of the time, the locative copula did not remain in Proto-Yŋòrtuèian and became used as a preposition.

Proto-Yŋòrtuèian verbs have become slightly more irregular. Person and number were not marked in verbs, and in other related languages aren't either.

Verbal DistinctionEdit

Verbs distinguished four things: tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

The three tenses are: anterior past, past, non-past. The anterior past was used to express the pluperfect, the remote past, and the relative past. The past was used to express the perfect, and the recent past. The non-past expressed the present, the future, and relative future.

The three aspects are: repetitive, initial, progressive. The repetitive expressed habituality and iterativity. The initial expressed the inchoative and prospective aspects. It also expressed simple present in the present. The progressive expressed both the continuous and the progressive.

The four moods are: indicative, subjunctive, subjunctive II, and imperative. The first subjunctive (or subjunctive I) was used in the same situations as the older subjunctive and conditional moods. The second subjunctive (or subjunctive II) was used in the same situations as the older optative and potential moods. The interrogative was not considered a separate mood, and unlike other moods was expressed using the auxiliary adverb kepò.

The three voices (there may have been more, though) are: active, passive, and antipassive. There may have been a reflexive voice. However, reciprocal expressions were rare and not regarded as a distinct voice in verbal inflection.

Verbs conjugated for active voice are slightly shorter than for others because active voice is unmarked.

ConjugationEdit

Proto-Yŋòrtuèian verbs distinguish less things than in Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky and as a result use less suffixes. Some verbs add an -è before some suffixes to make the word easier to pronounce.

A stands for anterior past, P stands for past, N stand for non-past.

Active Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive N Initial A Initial P Initial N Progressive A Progressive P Progressive N
Indicative lo luòt luò lal lat la lent ler lentè
Subjunctive I iu uòt ial t ia iantè ar ant
Subjunctive II iu ròt io rat ra intè rer rent
Imperative nuò na nent


Passive Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive N Initial A Initial P Initial N Progressive A Progressive P Progressive N
Indicative loiòr luòtòr luòiòr lalòr latòr laiòr lentòr leròr lentèiòr
Subjunctive I iuiòr uòtòr uòiòr ialòr tòr iaiòr iantèiòr aròr antòr
Subjunctive II iuiòr ròtòr ròiòr ioiòr ratòr raiòr intèiòr reròr rentòr
Imperative nuòiòr naiòr nentòr
Antipassive Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive N Initial A Initial P Initial N Progressive A Progressive P Progressive N
Indicative loiam luòtam luòiam lalam latam laiam lentam leram lentèiam
Subjunctive I iuiam uòtam uòiam ialam tam iaiam iantèiam aram antam
Subjunctive II iuiam ròtam ròiam ioiam ratam raiam intèiam reram rentam
Imperative nuòiam nam nentam

NounsEdit

The five declensions of Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky changed and simplified most in Yŋòrtuèian languages due to sound change and less disambiguation resulting from less cases. This and the reduction of three genders to two caused great similarity in many declinational suffixes, which led to even less cases in some later languages.

First DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always common.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative n/m/l ne/me/le tònam tòname
Accusative ŋ ŋo tònaŋ tònaŋo
Absolutive ŋ ŋo tònaŋ tònaŋo
Dative l li tònal tònali
Genitive u ue tònau tònaue
Instrumental h ho tònah tònaho
Locative r re tònar tònare

Second DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always neuter.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative ò e hatò hate
Accusative ò o hatò hato
Absolutive ò u hato hatu
Dative a i hata hati
Genitive e ie hate hatie
Instrumental l lo hatèl hatèlo
Locative ar are hatar hatare

Sometimes an <è> may be added before the instrumental suffix to make the word pronounceable.

Third DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension can be either gender.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative h he rah rahe
Accusative i io rai raio
Absolutive i io rai raio
Dative t ti rat rati
Genitive i ie rai raie
Instrumental h ho rah raho
Locative r re rar rare