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Proto-Ular
Pronunciation /u4lar2/
Period ca. 10000BK - 7000BK
Spoken in Centre of Ular Island
Total speakers unknown
Writing system None
Classification Proto-Ular
Typology
Basic word order OSV
Morphology Isolating
Alignment Nominative–accusative
Credits
Created by Iyionaku
Proto-Ular is the reconstructed proto-language of the family of Ular Languages. It is supposed to be spoken between 10.000-7.000 BK.
Ularmap

The urheimat of the Ular people.

PhonologyEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal *m *n
Plosive
  • b/p
  • bʰ/pʰ
  • d/t
  • dʰ/tʰ
  • g/k
  • gʰ/kʰ
Fricative
Flaps
Approximant ɹ *j
  • ʟ
*w
Lateral Fricative
Lateral Approximant *l
Front Back
High *u
Central *o
Low
  • ɑ

Proto-Ular didn't distinguish if a plosive was soft or hard, but it made a difference if it was aspirated or not.

Proto-Ular seems to have been a tonal language, as it's descendants were too. It seems there where six tones and a 7th, unmarked tone.

1 = very high, marked with acute (á, ó, ú)

2 = falling from high to low, marked with breve (ă, ŏ, ŭ)

3 = middle, marked with makron (ā, ō, ū)

4 = low, marked with grave (à, ò, ù)

5 = increasing from low to high, marked with circumflexe (â, ô, û)

6 = "singing" around the middle-high tone, like in a treole, marked with tilde (ã, õ, ũ)


Transcription:

IPA:        /m n ŋ  p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ ѵ ɾ ɹ  j ʟ l  w/
Transcript: <m n ng p ph t th k kh v r rh j l lh w/
IPA:        /a o u/
Transcript: <a o u>  [With diacritics to show the tone]

Phonological constrictions

Plosives and taps are not allowed to be an ablaut. If the anlaut is a non-aspiranted plosive, there is no r allowed as ablaut.

GrammarEdit

Proto-Ular was, like its descendants, an isolating language. Differently to some of its descendants, who changed to SOV, Proto-Ular was an OSV-Language.

Nouns

Nouns had no conjugation at all, neither casus nor numerus. When you want to say that there is more than one of something, you added the counting word *ngaw[1? 4?], literally lots.

Verbs

Same for verbs. I have, you have, he has, we have = all the same verb, linguists have reconstructed the form *phăl. Tempi need additional words, like *phăw, yesterday.

Some reconstructed words

Proto-Ular Modern English
*khán clay, dirty, hardening
*nă mother, get born
*nà distance, something that is far away
*ngõ anger, angry, to anger
*rhām handsome, attraction, to attract
*án wise, wisdom, to know very much
*ãn wheat, work on fields
land, to own
*lăn I, me, mine, my
*lhō maybe take down
*olh [ōlh? õlh?] problem, to get in trouble, troblish
*òng four-legged, big animal, also: to bank
*vul (tone unknown)

brick

*vul pál house (literally brick building)
*thàng ngō

worker (work man)

*páwlh lake, to swim
*lû good, nice
*lû rô better
*lû ró best
*nă fān wă parents (literally mother and father)
*mũg thăw big city (name of today's metu)
*khù everything that swims in lakes
*kù blood
*kû meat (minimal pairs)
*láw high rising, high, to rise, mountain peak
*vō everything that flies in the air
*vō vâ all kinds of birds
*vō kãng flying insects
*jàlh something, an unknown amount of something
*răr everything and everyone thats male
*răr ngō Man, men
*yán everything and everyone thats femals
*yón ngō Woman, women
*ràr ngō rhán Boy, boys
*yón ngō rhán Girl, girls
*ngō rhán child, children