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Proto-Tjïvnjïs
tjïvnjïs pjispjowj
Proto-Tjïvnjïs
Pronunciation /tʲɨvnʲɨsˠ pʲiɕpʲoɥ/
Period ca. 10000BK
Spoken in Far Northestern Limits of Amalan
Total speakers unknown
Writing system none
Classification Gigxkpoyan languages
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Fusional/Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Credits
Created by loglorn

Proto-Tjïvnjïs is a descendant of Proto-Gigxkpoyan, spoken around 10 000BK in Northern Amalan.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The main feature of it's consonants is the Palatalized/Velarized distinction. Palatalization and velarization are properties of clusters (even if heterosyllabic) as oposed to sole segments.

Proto-Tjïvnjïs consonantal inventory is normally agreed to be the following:

Consonantal Inventory
Labial Alveolar Post-Alveolar Dorsal
Pal.¹ Vel. Pal. Vel. Pal. Vel. Pal. Vel.
Nasals /mʲ/ mj /mˠ/ m /nʲ/ nj /nˠ/ n /ŋ/ ng
Plosives /pʲ/ pj /pˠ/ p /tʲ/ tj /tˠ/ t /t͡ɕ/ cj /ʈ͡ʂ/ c /c/ kj /k/ k
Unvoiced Fric. /fʲ/ fj /fˠ/ f /s/ s /ɕ/ sj/ṣj² /ʂ/ ṣ /ç/ xj /x/ x
Voiced Fric. /vʲ/ vj /vˠ/ v /z/ z /ʑ/ zj/ẓj² /ʐ/ ẓ
Approx. /ɥ/ wj /w/ ww /j/ j /ɰ/ w

¹ Palatalized and Velarized.

² They may be romanized in two different ways because it helps verbal conjugation issues

Romanization note: As clusters are either all palatalized or all velarized, the palatalizing <j> is written only once.

VowelsEdit

Proto-Tjïvnjïs is agreed to have 7 vowel phonemes, normally regarded as:

Front Central Back
Close /i/ i /ɨ/ ï /u/ u
Mid /e/ e /ə/ ë /o/ o
Open /a/ a 

Vowel shifts were violent in Proto-Tjïvnjïs development and vowel correspondences are quite tricky.

NounsEdit

Case MarkingEdit

Case was marked through prepositions. The most essential being:

P. Tjïvnjïs Cases
Accusative *je
Dechticaetiative *pwjitj
Genitive *wjitj
Locative *tkjet
Lative *tjïjtj
Instrumental *stjiwo
Comitative *sfjujk

A variety of more specific lative/locative prepositions also exist. Some examples:

​fjatjip je wëmj
fjatji-p je wëmj
hug-PF ACC dog
hugged the dog
wëmj wjitj sjisj
dog GEN 1PS
my dog
ṣjïw tjïjtjë tëtjiw
ṣjï-w tjïjtjë tëtjiw
walk-PRO LAT land
walking through the land

NumberEdit

P.Tjïvnjïs' nouns were not normally marked for number (P. Gigxkpoyan quantifier system was dopped in Tjïvnjïs and Toovngus)

Pronouns Edit

Proto-Tjïvnjïs pronouns distinguished 3 persons and two numbers (singular and plural)

Reconstructed Pronouns
Singular Plural
First sjisj tjimsj
Second juṣ jusjawtj
Third kjet kjecëwtj

VerbsEdit

Aspect/TenseEdit

P. Tjïvnjïs retained P. Gigxkpoyan aspectual system almost morphologically intact. But they seem to have been used more as tense rather than aspect.

Reconstructed Aspect Markers
Past *-p
Gnomic *-ẓ
Present *-w
Habitual *-jtjë
Future *-pkj

The consonantal part of the affixes was regular, but the vowels that accompanied them are rather unstable and hard to predict, specially in negative forms. If one were to organize such vowel alternations the number of different conjugations could reach the dozens.

NegationEdit

P. Tjïvnjïs verbs display special root forms for negation. All positive verbs display in their first syllable a palatalized consonant/cluster. In order to negate the verbs, such clusters are Velarized:

mjiw (is) vs. mew (isn't) ([mʲiɰ]; [mˠeɰ], the vowel alternation is secondary and accrues from the velarization)

ṣup je jut
NEG\eat:PF ACC fish
did not eat the fish

vs.

ṣjup je jut
eat:PF ACC fish
ate the fish

VoiceEdit

PassiveEdit

The passive voice is formed by an affix of the form -wjV-, that comes before the tense marking.

It sufaces as -wjo- when not followed and when followed by -jtjë or -pkj. It surfaces as -wjë- when followed by -p, -ẓ or -w

CausativeEdit

The Causative voice was marked by -të-, that also applies before the tense marking. Causatives behave like Ditransitive verbs,

Passive Causative Edit

There was also a Passive Causative formation.

Causative v. Passive Causative comparative:

ṣjutëp juṣ pwjitj sjisj je sjicjë
ṣju-të-p juṣ pwjitj sjisj je sjicjë
eat-CAUS-PST 2P DECH 1PS ACC egg
you made me eat an egg

vs.

ṣjutëwjëp sjisj je sjicjë (pwjitj juṣ)
ṣju-të-wjë-p sjisj je sjicjë (pwjitj juṣ)
eat-CAUS-PASS-PST 1PS ACC egg (DECH 2P)
i was made to eat an egg (by you)

Defective VerbsEdit

Some verbs, mostly verbs of feeling, behave like weird passive forms of ditransitive verbs, having their objects in the Dechticaetiative case.

sjowjëw pwjitj kjeft
sjowjë-w pwjitj kjeft
be.fond.of-PRES DECH meat
i like meat

Infinitive Usage and Subordinate Clauses Edit

The Infinitival Phrase (VP's with infinitives) are what is called clausal nominalizations, full clauses used as nouns. When such nominalizations are used in non-core cases they usually assume some sort of adverbial value and can be said to be subordinate clauses. 

Nominative Infinitive Edit

The Infinitive has no accompanying case marked (and is thus nominative) when in copula phrases or when expressing a reason clause.

mjiw sjowjo pwjitj kjeft cusjatjë
COP like.INF DECH meat big
My liking of meat is big
sjowjo juṣ pwjitj sjicjë cjëp je juṣ
like.INF 2PS DECH egg kill-PST ACC 2PS
His liking of eggs killed him
or
He died because he liked eggs

When by itself the infinitive may also work an imperative

fnju!
come.IMP
come!

Accusative Infinitive Edit

The accusative is used when the Clausal Nominalization takes the position of an object.

cjëp kjet je sjowjo pwjitj sjicjë
kill-PST 3PS ACC like.INF DECH egg
It killed my liking for egg

Dechticaetiative Infinite Edit

The Dechticaetiative Infinitive is used just like the Accusative Infinitive when used with the special defective verbs

sjowjëw pwjitj ṣju kjeft wjitj ṣkcusj
like-PRES DECH eat.INF meat GEN ṣkcusj
I like eating ṣkcusj meat

It can also have the same meaning of purpose as the Nominative Accusative when used with passive forms in the main clause.

juṣ cjëwjëp pwjitj sjowjo juṣ pwjitj sjicjë
2PS kill-PASS-PST DECH like.INF 2PS DECH egg
He was killed by his liking of egg
or
He died because he liked egg

Instrumental Infinitive Edit

The clause with the instrumental infinitive shows the means to the main clause:

cjëp je ṣkcusj stjiwo fjë je tapj
i kil-PST ACC ṣkcusj INS swing.INF ACC axe
i killed a ṣkcusj by swinging an axe
or
i killed a ṣkcusj with an axe swing
or
i killed a ṣkcusj with an axe

Locative Infinitive Edit

It forms When Clauses

tjëp je jëjkë tkjet ṣjï
see-PST ACC bird LOC walk.INF
i saw a bird when walking

Lative Infinitive Edit

It normally forms purpose clauses:

fnjup tjïjtj tjë je jëjkë
come-PST LAT see.INF ACC bird
i came to see birds
or
i came in order to see birds

Conjunctions Edit

There are some conjunctions that can also generate subordinate (or maybe coordinate) clauses

WjujsjEdit

The verb 'and then' conjunction:

tjatjëp juṣ wjujsj pxja
get.up-PST 2PS and.then go.INF
You got up and went
or
You got up and then went
CëzjEdit

Almost synonymous to 'if', it expresses a condition:

cjëpkj je juṣ cëzj swë
kill-FUT ACC 2PS COND move.INF
i will kill you if you move

Relative ClausesEdit

Relativization was realized through the use of Infinitives with the genitive case.

tjëp je cjëpj wjitj tjë je jëjkë
tjë-p je cjëpj wjitj tjë je jëjkë
see-PST ACC man GEN see.INF ACC bird
i saw the man who saw birds

As infinitives have no tense, it was left mostly to context.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjetives look like normal nouns, except that most of them ends in -sjatjë/sjëtje/ṣatjë/ṣëtjë (Some don't. Remarkably, color terms).

When used attributively they are preceded by the Genitive case marker, they come after nouns. When used predicatively they receive no case markers.

wëmj wjitj cusjatjë
dog GEN big
big dog
wëmj mjiw cusjatjë
dog COP-PRES big
dog is big

In order to form adverbs the -sjatjë/sjëtje ending changes to -sjëṣnu/ṣëṣnu and they receive the instrumental case instead.

ṣuẓ stjiwo cusjëṣnu
eat-GNO INS big-ADVZ
i eat a lot(bigly)

SyntaxEdit

Syntax is har to reconstruct, but Proto-Tjïvnjïs is normally treated as being VSO, N-Adj and as havin prepositions.

LexiconEdit

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