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Proto-Tingwe
N'ohro
Pronunciation [ᵑǃ˞ɔ̤ːɽɔ]
Period 10000BK - 8500BK
Spoken in Bundesell River, Northeastern Amutet
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Unknown
Classification Tingwe languages
Typology
Basic word order SVO/PVA
Morphology Split-ergative
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Credits
Created by smappy

ConsonantsEdit

Consonants
  Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-Palatal Velar Postvelar Glottal
plain rounded plain rounded plain rounded
Nasal m n
Stop Plain t ʈ k q ʔ
Voiced b d ɖ g
Prenasalized mb nd ɳɖ ŋg ŋgʷ
Fricative f ɕ x χ χʷ h
Approximant v ɽ w ʁ
Click Plain Nasal ᵑ| ᵑ! ᵑǃ˞
Aspirated Nasal ᵑǀʰ ᵑ!ʰ ᵑǃ˞ʰ
Voiceless Stop ǀ  !  !˞
Voiced Stop ᶢǀ ᶢ! ᶢ!˞
Aspirated Stop ǀʰ  !ʰ ǃ˞ʰ

VowelsEdit

Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i
Mid ǝ ɔ
Low a

Diphthongs ai, au, ei, uǝ, iǝ, e:

All vowels may take either modal or breathy voice.

AccentEdit

Accent in Proto-Tingwe appears on the final syllable of a word, unless there is a penultimate or antepenultimate syllable containing breathy voice, in which case the accent falls on that syllable.

Phonotactics and AllophonyEdit

The Proto-Tingwe word must take the form CV(CV)...(C) where clicks and approximants may not appear in final position but all words must begin with a consonant.

OrthographyEdit

Consonants
  Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-Palatal Velar Postvelar Glottal
plain rounded plain rounded plain rounded
Nasal m n
Stop Plain t tl ty k kw q qw c
Voiced b d dl dy g gw
Prenasalized mb nd ndl ng ngw
Fricative f s j jw x xw h hw
Approximant v r w rh wh
Click Plain Nasal nz 'n n'
Aspirated Nasal nzh 'nh nh'
Voiceless Stop tz 't t'
Voiced Stop dz 'd d'
Aspirated Stop tzh 'th th'
Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i
Mid e o
Low a

Diphthongs ai, au, ei, eu, ie, ia

The letter <'>'s capital form is <P>.

Breathy voice is indicated by <h> immediately following the vowel carrying it.

GrammarEdit

Proto-Tingwe is a split-ergative language. Clauses occur in the order SVO or PVA, where P is patient and A is agent, depending on the form of the verb (accusative or ergative). About 30% of verbs may occur only in one form. The rest may change form. Usually this happens so the speaker can omit mention of themselves to present a humble attitude, or alternatively to place a long noun phrase at the end of the clause for easier comprehension.

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