Pronunciation Unknown
Period ca. 10000BK-9000BK
Spoken in Eastern Amutet
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system None
Classification Amutetikam-Tiledem
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Nonconcatenative / Agglutinative
Alignment Accusative
Created by smappy

History Edit

Proto-Tiledem is the ancestor of the Tiledem languages. It was likely spoken around the Bandichhi River, also known as the Kaltek River, in about 10000BK by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers who were familiar with fishing.

Phonology Edit


  Labial Alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Velar Glottal
plain lateral
Nasal *m *n
Stop Plain *t *tɕ *k
Voiced *b *d *g
Aspirated *pʰ *tʰ *tɕʰ *kʰ
Prenasalized *mb *nd *ŋg
Fricative *s *h
Approximant *l


  Front Central Back
Close *i *u
Open *a


  • ai, *au, *ǝi, *ǝu


Accent in Proto-Tiledem appears on the first syllable of a word.

Phonotactics and AllophonyEdit

The Proto-Tiledem word must take the form CV(CV)...(C) where any consonant may appear in any position but all words must begin with a consonant.

Morphology Edit


The Proto-Tiledem noun stem usually consists of a CVCVC stem. Vowels vary predictably depending on what noun class the word in question belongs to.

For example, the root ɕ-ŋg-t 'tent(folded up)/tent/fabric/family/home' may take various vowel patterns to produce a localization in meaning to ɕǝŋgaut, ɕaŋgǝut, ɕaŋgǝit, ɕiŋgǝit, ɕuŋgǝt. This vowel alternation is mostly unproductive and lexicalized by about 8000BK.

Noun Class
Class Vowel 1 Vowel 2
A (physical objects) ǝ au
B (round/containers) a ǝu
C (flat objects) a ǝi
D (abstract) i ǝi
E (places) u ǝ

To indicate tense and mood an suffix is often used on the subject noun phrase of a sentence.

TAM Suffix (Nouns)
Tense/Mood Form
Present -ŋa
Past -ŋat
Irrealis -ŋam


The Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem verb root usually consists of a CCC stem. The root takes two vowels to produce a verb stem conveying aspect and mood which may then combine with TAM suffixes on the subject or adverb to produce a standalone clause.

For example, the root h-ɹ-l 'love' may take the vowels a and ǝu to produce the stem haɹǝul 'love.I'. In the same sentence the subject mǝ- '2s' may take the TAM suffix -ŋat to produce the clause haɹǝul mǝŋat 'You loved (it) (habitually).'

Some verbs (generally very 'basic' ones) may take a linking vowel followed by a verbal TAM suffix— in this case, the subject need not take a TAM suffix.

For example, the root tɕʰ-pʰ-n 'see' may take the vowels a, ǝu, and u to produce the stem tɕʰapʰǝunu 'see.I,' and take the TAM suffix -t to produce the form tɕʰapʰǝunut 'saw (habitually).'

Verb Inflection
Stem Class First Vowel Second Vowel Linking Vowel
Stem I (imperfective) a ǝu u
Stem II (perfective) a ǝi i
Stem III (irrealis) ǝ ǝu u
Stem III (optative.negative) ǝ ǝi i
Stem IV (optative) ǝ ǝ ǝ
Stem V (optative) ǝ u u
TAM Suffix (Verbs)
Tense/Mood Form
Past -t
Irrealis -p with stem I and II, -m otherwise

Syntax Edit

Noun Phrases Edit

In Proto-Tiledem the noun phrase usually consists of a determiner followed by a noun. Modifiers follow the noun.

The determiner changes based on the class of the noun it modifies.

Class Form
A ha
B ha
C hi
D hi
E ha

Possession is expressed through the construction X kaim Y to mean 'Y's X.'

For example, ha tɕatʰǝwŋ kaim hi ɕaŋgǝit 'the fabric's beads, the beads on the fabric'

Sentence Edit

Word order is generally VSO. Adverbs usually occupy the second position in the sentence.

Lexicon Edit

Nouns Edit

Class letter is indicated.

Amutet - butǝt E
bead - tɕatʰǝuŋ B
clan - kitʰǝim D
day - natǝul B
fabric - ɕaŋgǝit C
family - ɕiŋgǝit D
food - tʰǝkaum A
grass - ŋgǝlaun A
hand - kʰatɕǝis C
home - ɕuŋgǝt E
language - tilǝi-dǝim D
lump - kamǝus B
mountain - kʰulǝt E
river - tʰutǝl E
shield - tɕʰanǝit C
sliver - kamǝis C
summer - tɕʰinǝis D
tent - ɕaŋg̵ǝut B
tent (folded up) - ɕǝŋgaut A
water (in a container) - badǝul B
water (in a river) - bǝdaul A
winter - kibǝis D
word - tilǝib D

Pronouns Edit

1s - kʰǝ-
2s - mǝ-
that - ŋǝ-

Verbs Edit

Verbs which take TAM suffixes are indicated by *.

go - nd-p-t*
know - nd-t-n*
love - h-ɹ-l
put - kʰ-t-n*
see - tɕʰ-pʰ-n*

Modifiers Edit

Adjectives Edit

many - dǝim

Adverbs Edit

today - ŋam

Sound Changes from Proto-Amutetikam-TiledemEdit

Vowel ChangesEdit

Ø > i/u / _C[i/u]#
V > Ø / _#
V > Ø / [i,u,ɯ]_
ɯ > ǝ

Consonant ChangesEdit

h > ŋ
ʔ > h
p > b
mp/nt/ŋk > b/d/g
mpʰ/ntʰ/ŋkʰ > mb/nd/ŋg
ntɕ > ɲ
ntɕʰ > ɬ
[+stop +voice] > Ø / _C