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Proto-Pogeduimogan
pogeduimogane daka
4000BK p-pog
Pronunciation /pɔ.ɣɛ.ðʊ̯i.mɔ.ˈɣa.nɛ ˈða.ka/
Period ca. 7000BK – 3200BK
Spoken in Ytdobogȧn Peninsula, Amalan
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Ydtobogȧndeki
Classification Pogeduimogan, Ydtobogȧntiaky
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Fusional
Alignment Tripartite
Credits
Created by Sḿtuval

PhonologyEdit

Proto-Pogeduimogan did not make a distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants like its predecessor. Many vowels changed and some vowels merged due to sound change. Both tables have romanizations for each phoneme.

Reconstructed Proto-Pogeduimogan Consonant Inventory
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal *m m *n n *ŋ ŋ
Plosive *p p *t t *k k
Fricative *β b *ð d *ɣ g
Approximant *ɹ r *j i *w u
Lateral *l l
Reconstructed Proto-Pogeduimogan Vowel Inventory
Front Central Back
High *i i *u u
Mid *ɛ e *ɔ o
Low *a a

GrammarEdit

The locative and ablative cases were replaced in part by postpositions. Also, the masculine and feminine genders merged into a common gender. Due to this, only some suffixes from each of three of the inflectional paradigms were used in a new merged inflectional paradigm.

VerbsEdit

Unlike nouns, verbs had only one inflectional paradigm.

The marking of transitivity disappeared in Proto-Pogeduimogan. In some cases, however, transitivity became a lexically marked quality, as the original suffixes were kept but heavily eroded.

More verbs than before are irregular, and due to sound change (and common usage in some verbs) many regular verbs became moderately or heavily irregular. Some examples of heavily irregular verbs are at, guik, temeter, demat.

Proto-Pogeduimogan verbs have become slightly more irregular. Person and number were not marked in verbs, and in other related languages aren't either.

Verbal DistinctionEdit

Verbs distinguished four things: tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

The three tenses are: anterior past, past, non-past. The anterior past was used to express the pluperfect, the remote past, and the relative past. The past was used to express the perfect, and the recent past. The non-past expressed the present, the future, and relative future.

The three aspects are: repetitive, initial, progressive. The repetitive expressed habituality and iterativity. The initial expressed the inchoative and prospective aspects. It also expressed simple present in the present. The progressive expressed both the continuous and the progressive.

The four moods are: indicative, subjunctive, subjunctive II, and imperative. The first subjunctive (or subjunctive I) was used in the same situations as the older subjunctive and conditional moods. The second subjunctive (or subjunctive II) was used in the same situations as the older optative and potential moods. The interrogative was not considered a separate mood, and unlike other moods was expressed using the auxiliary adverb kipa.

The three voices (there may have been more, though) are: active, passive, and antipassive. There may have been a reflexive voice. However, reciprocal expressions were rare and not regarded as a distinct voice in verbal inflection.

Verbs conjugated for active voice are slightly shorter than for others because active voice is unmarked.

ConjugationEdit

Proto-Pogeduimogan verbs distinguish less things than in Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky and as a result use less suffixes. Some verbs add an -e before some suffixes to make the word easier to pronounce.

A stands for anterior past, P stands for past, N stand for non-past.

Active Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive N Initial A Initial P Initial N Progressive A Progressive P Progressive N
Indicative ru ruot ruo rer ret re rintr rid rint
Subjunctive I iou uot uo iar t ia ientr ed ent
Subjunctive II gou duot duo gu det de guintr did dint
Imperative nuo ne nint


Passive Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive N Initial A Initial P Initial N Progressive A Progressive P Progressive N
Indicative rugod ruotod ruogod rerod retod regod rintrod ridod rintod
Subjunctive I iougod uotod uogod iarod tod iagod ientrod edod entod
Subjunctive II gougod duotgod duogod guod detod degod guintrod didod dintod
Imperative nuogod negod nintod


Antipassive Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive N Initial A Initial P Initial N Progressive A Progressive P Progressive N
Indicative ruiem ruotem ruoiem rerem retem reiem rintrem ridem rintem
Subjunctive I iouiem uotem uoiem iarem tem iaiem ientrem edem entem
Subjunctive II gouiem duotem duoiem guiem detem deiem guintrem didem dintem
Imperative nuoiem neiem nintem

NounsEdit

The five declensions of Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky changed and simplified most in Pogeduimogan languages due to sound change and less disambiguation resulting from less cases. This and the reduction of three genders to two caused great similarity in many declinational suffixes, which led to even less cases in some later languages. Also, many plural declinational suffixes completely disappeared. They were replaced by their singular counterparts with an added -i marking plurality taken from the plural ergative, dative, and genitive suffixes of most Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky nouns. In the first declension, the -i remained the same, but in (part of) the third declension, the -i gave way to sound change, becoming an -e.

First DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always common.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative n/m/l ni/mi/li tanem tanemi
Accusative t ti tanet taneti
Absolutive t ti tanet taneti
Dative r ri taner taneri
Genitive b bi taneb tanebi
Instrumental g gi taneg tanegi

Second DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always neuter.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative a i geta geti
Accusative o u geto getu
Absolutive a i geta geti
Dative ar ai getar getai
Genitive e ei gete getei
Instrumental o u geto getu

Third DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension can be either gender.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Ergative k ke dek deke
Accusative g go deg dego
Absolutive b bo deb debo
Dative r re der dere
Genitive p pe dep depe
Instrumental ŋ ŋo deŋ deŋo