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Proto-Northern-Gigxkpoyan
biğgö wiḏ gigğ
PNG
Pronunciation /biɣgø wid̪ gigɣ/
Period ca. 10000BK
Spoken in Eastern coast of Amalan
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system
Classification Gigxkpoyan languages
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Isolating/Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Credits
Created by loglorn

The Proto-Northern-Gigxkpoyan is one of Proto-Gigxkpoyan descendants. It is itself the proto-language of the Northern Gigxkpoyan branch

PhonologyEdit

PNG is normally reconstructed as having 41 consonantal phonemes and 8 vowel ones.

ConsonantsEdit

Consonantal Phonemes
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal Voiced m <m> n̪ <ṉ> n <n> ɲ <ny> ŋ <ŋ>
Unv. m̥ <mh> n̪̊ <ṉh> n̥ <nh> ɲ̊ <nyh> ŋ̊ <ŋh>
Plosives Plain p t̪ <ṯ> t <t> t͡ʃ <c> k <k>
Asp. pʰ <ph> t̪ʰ <ṯh> tʰ <th> t͡ʃʰ <ch> kʰ <kh>
Voiced b d̪ <ḏ> d <d> d͡ʒ <j> g <g>
Fricatives Unv. f <f> θ <ŧ> s ʃ <sy> x <x> h <h>
Voiced v <v> ð <đ> z <z> ʒ <zy> ɣ <ğ> ɦ <ḥ>
Approximants l ɹ <l r> j <y> w <w>

VowelsEdit

PNG displays vowel harmony, but the process is not morphologically very present because PNG got mostly analytic.

Vowel Phonemes
Front Back
Unround Round Unround Round
High i i y <ü> ɯ <ï> u u
Low e <e> ø <ö> a <a> o <o>

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

CaseEdit

Case is marked in PNG through prepositions

Preposition Case
Accusative
biwit Instrumental
wiḏ Genitive
ṯhaṯh Locative
dulṯ to
ṉhïh from

There are a variety of additional precise locative prepositions, such as bwuḏ, outside, and wïy, above.

DefinitenessEdit

DefiniteEdit

Definiteness is marked through a definite suffix, that can take 4 slightly different realizations:

After clusters: CC-> Cumphuw/ümphüw/imphiw/ïmphïw, that is, it substitutes the last consonant of the cluster.

klumŧ →klumumphuw (dye →the dye)

After aspirated consonants: -phuw/phüw/phiw/phïw.

glaṯh →glaṯhphïw (sound →the sound)

After <y>: -mphuw/üw/iw/ïw, without substituting anyone.

gïy →gïymphïw (time →the time)

Else: -mphuw/üw/iw/ïw, substituting last consonant.

ŧïŧ →ŧïmphïw (food →the food)

pli →plimphiw (star →the star)

IndefiniteEdit

Indefinite nouns were marked by adding -ü/u/i/ï. If they end in vowel, an epenthetic <ḥ> was inserted.

NumbersEdit

The numbers from one to ten are as follows:

ṉhüw, ṉhïŋ, ṉhül, tnül, ṉhön, ṉhep, ṉhaŋkh, ṉhađ, ṉhozb, ṉhiph

Larger numbers are formed by simply stacking them, when doing that, the number 10 assumes the special form iph

VerbsEdit

There are four verb forms and some particles, that together convey TAM.

Verb FormsEdit

Realis: -lth

Irrealis: -ph

Infinitive: -z

Imperative: -w

ParticlesEdit

There are the Tense-Aspect Particles, the Negative Particle and the Relativizer Particle. d Tense-Aspect Particles

Tense aspect Particles cannot be stacked.

khaz - past

wik - future

di - anterior

ŧe - continuous

Negative Particle: khi

Relativizer Particle: zi

Their usage is described in the next section.

Usage FunkieEdit

RealisEdit

When used by itself the Realis is a simple present:

ṯolth
ṯo-lth
see-R
i see

When used with the Tense-Aspect particles they assume their most basic meaning:

khaz ṯolth
khaz ṯo-lth
PST see-R
i saw
wik ṯolth
wik ṯo-lth
FUT see-R
i will see
di ṯolth
di ṯo-lth
ANT see-R
i saw (before something else previously mentioned in discourse)
ŧe ṯolth
ŧe ṯo-lth
CON see-R
i am seeing
IrrealisEdit

The lone Irrealis form is used as a form of Hortative, indicating encouragement (akin to Japanese -ou)

bğeph!
let's go!

When used with khaz the construction assumes Inferential (or indirect evidentiality) value

khaz sïph giṯh lö bag twï
I was told he ate some mushrooms

When used with wik the construction expresses the speaker's wishes, like a Desiderative or Volitive mood.

wik bğeph
i want to go
wik köph giṯh bakhï
may you live long (lit. live oldly)

When used with di it's something between a speculative and deductive meaning

di sïph giṯh lö bag twï
Maybe he ate some mushrooms

When used with ŧe it expresses something of a potential mood

ŧe sïph giṯh lö bag twï
he'll probably eat some mushrooms
InfinitiveEdit

The lone Infinitive is only used when it's a clausal argument. When used as an object it is not marked by the Accusative particle lö.

milth ŧlaz lö hahṯh kmol
COP.R like.INF ACC food big
My liking of food is big
ŧlalth sïz
I like eating

When used with the particles Coordinate and Subordinate clauses are formed.

Khaz forms a clauses that convey the motive, like because does in English.

khaz welth giṯh khaz sïz bamphuw twï
PST die-R 3PS khaz eat.INF mushroom-DEF some
He died because he ate the mushrooms

With wik coordinated sequential phrases are formed, kinda like and then (or one of the uses of the -te form in Japanese)

khaz ḏaḏolth ğus wik bğez
PST awake.R 3PS wik go.INF
He awoke and went
or
He awoke and then went

Along with di it forms subordinate conditional clause.

wik khelth lö giṯh di ğuz
FUT kill.R ACC 3PS di move-INF
I will kill you if move

In conjunct with ŧe, it forms a simultaneous clause.

khaz ṯolth lö lorhu ŧe gwoz
PST see ACC bird-INDEF ŧe walk.INF
I saw a bird while(or when) walking
ImperativeEdit

The Imperative is only used in commands and never receives particles.

hsiw!
run!

AdjectivesEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit