| Proto-Northern-Gigxkpoyan |
biğgö wiḏ gigğ
|Pronunciation||/biɣgø wid̪ gigɣ/|
|Spoken in||Eastern coast of Amalan|
|Basic word order||VSO|
The Proto-Northern-Gigxkpoyan is one of Proto-Gigxkpoyan descendants. It is itself the proto-language of the Northern Gigxkpoyan branch
PNG is normally reconstructed as having 41 consonantal phonemes and 8 vowel ones.
|Nasal||Voiced||m <m>||n̪ <ṉ>||n <n>||ɲ <ny>||ŋ <ŋ>|
|Unv.||m̥ <mh>||n̪̊ <ṉh>||n̥ <nh>||ɲ̊ <nyh>||ŋ̊ <ŋh>|
|Plosives||Plain||p||t̪ <ṯ>||t <t>||t͡ʃ <c>||k <k>|
|Asp.||pʰ <ph>||t̪ʰ <ṯh>||tʰ <th>||t͡ʃʰ <ch>||kʰ <kh>|
|Voiced||b||d̪ <ḏ>||d <d>||d͡ʒ <j>||g <g>|
|Fricatives||Unv.||f <f>||θ <ŧ>||s ||ʃ <sy>||x <x>||h <h>|
|Voiced||v <v>||ð <đ>||z <z>||ʒ <zy>||ɣ <ğ>||ɦ <ḥ>|
|Approximants||l ɹ <l r>||j <y>||w <w>|
PNG displays vowel harmony, but the process is not morphologically very present because PNG got mostly analytic.
|High||i i||y <ü>||ɯ <ï>||u u|
|Low||e <e>||ø <ö>||a <a>||o <o>|
Case is marked in PNG through prepositions
There are a variety of additional precise locative prepositions, such as bwuḏ, outside, and wïy, above.
Definiteness is marked through a definite suffix, that can take 4 slightly different realizations:
After clusters: CC-> Cumphuw/ümphüw/imphiw/ïmphïw, that is, it substitutes the last consonant of the cluster.
klumŧ →klumumphuw (dye →the dye)
After aspirated consonants: -phuw/phüw/phiw/phïw.
glaṯh →glaṯhphïw (sound →the sound)
After <y>: -mphuw/üw/iw/ïw, without substituting anyone.
gïy →gïymphïw (time →the time)
Else: -mphuw/üw/iw/ïw, substituting last consonant.
ŧïŧ →ŧïmphïw (food →the food)
pli →plimphiw (star →the star)
Indefinite nouns were marked by adding -ü/u/i/ï. If they end in vowel, an epenthetic <ḥ> was inserted.
The numbers from one to ten are as follows:
ṉhüw, ṉhïŋ, ṉhül, tnül, ṉhön, ṉhep, ṉhaŋkh, ṉhađ, ṉhozb, ṉhiph
Larger numbers are formed by simply stacking them, when doing that, the number 10 assumes the special form iph
There are four verb forms and some particles, that together convey TAM.
There are the Tense-Aspect Particles, the Negative Particle and the Relativizer Particle. d Tense-Aspect Particles
Tense aspect Particles cannot be stacked.
khaz - past
wik - future
di - anterior
ŧe - continuous
Negative Particle: khi
Relativizer Particle: zi
Their usage is described in the next section.
When used by itself the Realis is a simple present:
ṯolth ṯo-lth see-R i see
When used with the Tense-Aspect particles they assume their most basic meaning:
khaz ṯolth khaz ṯo-lth PST see-R i saw
wik ṯolth wik ṯo-lth FUT see-R i will see
di ṯolth di ṯo-lth ANT see-R i saw (before something else previously mentioned in discourse)
ŧe ṯolth ŧe ṯo-lth CON see-R i am seeing
The lone Irrealis form is used as a form of Hortative, indicating encouragement (akin to Japanese -ou)
bğeph! let's go!
When used with khaz the construction assumes Inferential (or indirect evidentiality) value
khaz sïph giṯh lö bag twï I was told he ate some mushrooms
When used with wik the construction expresses the speaker's wishes, like a Desiderative or Volitive mood.
wik bğeph i want to go
wik köph giṯh bakhï may you live long (lit. live oldly)
When used with di it's something between a speculative and deductive meaning
di sïph giṯh lö bag twï Maybe he ate some mushrooms
When used with ŧe it expresses something of a potential mood
ŧe sïph giṯh lö bag twï he'll probably eat some mushrooms
The lone Infinitive is only used when it's a clausal argument. When used as an object it is not marked by the Accusative particle lö.
milth ŧlaz lö hahṯh kmol COP.R like.INF ACC food big My liking of food is big
ŧlalth sïz I like eating
When used with the particles Coordinate and Subordinate clauses are formed.
Khaz forms a clauses that convey the motive, like because does in English.
khaz welth giṯh khaz sïz bamphuw twï PST die-R 3PS khaz eat.INF mushroom-DEF some He died because he ate the mushrooms
With wik coordinated sequential phrases are formed, kinda like and then (or one of the uses of the -te form in Japanese)
khaz ḏaḏolth ğus wik bğez PST awake.R 3PS wik go.INF He awoke and went or He awoke and then went
Along with di it forms subordinate conditional clause.
wik khelth lö giṯh di ğuz FUT kill.R ACC 3PS di move-INF I will kill you if move
In conjunct with ŧe, it forms a simultaneous clause.
khaz ṯolth lö lorhu ŧe gwoz PST see ACC bird-INDEF ŧe walk.INF I saw a bird while(or when) walking
The Imperative is only used in commands and never receives particles.