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Proto-Nautli is the suspected proto-language where all Nautli languages consist of.

Proto-Nautli
Jănxă
0o92cQF
Pronunciation [ɮɐnˤɐ]
Period 10000BK-7000BK
Spoken in Nautli Island
Total speakers Proto-Nautli People
Writing system none
Classification Nautli languages
Typology
Basic word order Unknown
Morphology agglutinating
Alignment nom-acc
Credits
Created by Collablang

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

As far as the actual research knows, this is the consonant set of Proto-Nautli

bilabial alveolar retroflex velar pha-
ryngal
glottal
NO PH NO PH NO LB/PH NO LB NO LB
Plosives p t ʈ k
Nasales n ŋ ŋʷ
Fricatives s ʂ ʕ ʕʷ h
lat. Fricatives ɮ
Approximants ɻ ɻʷ ɰ w
lat. Approximants l

Proto-Nautli didn't distinguish neither between voiceless and voiced consonants nor between aspirated or non-aspirated ones. Instead, some sounds were distinguished after their pharyngealization, others after their labialization.

Help for the pharyngealizations: Try to pronounce /p/ with a stertorous breathing after it, and you will have /pˤ/.

VowelsEdit

Proto-Nautli seemed to have this vowel set: /i ɪ e ɛ a ɐ o ɔ u ʊ/.

Proto-Nautli had vowel harmony, as its descendants do mostly. As far as the research knows, the vowels were divided into two sets: /i e a o u/ and /ɪ ɛ ɐ ɔ ʊ/ with some sort of "tense-lax" harmony system.

Romanization:

/n nˤ ŋ ŋʷ/ n nx ng ngv
/p pˤ t tˤ ʈ k kʷ ʕʼ ʕʷʼ/ p px t tx th k kv q qv
/s sˤ ʂ h/ s sx sr h
/ɻ~ɻʷ ɰ~w/ r v
/l lˤ/ l lx
/ɮ/ j

/i ɪ e ɛ/ ee i e è
/a ɐ/ a ă
/u ʊ o ɔ/ oo u o ò

Vowel-length was disctinctive in Proto-Nautli. If you romanize it, you do whatever.

PhonotacticsEdit

Proto-Nautli syllables were mostly CV, so that any of all consonants usually is followed by a vowel. However, there were more possibilities for the sonorants. If we call them R,we get the possibility of (C2)V(R2)and even (C1)(R1)V1(R2) as a maximal syllable structure. Nasals cannot occur as the second element of onset clusters, while they can occur in the syllable coda. The first segment has to be a plain obstruent.

C1={p, t, k, s}

C2={n, nˤ, ŋ, ŋʷ, p, pˤ, t, tˤ, ʈ, k, kʷ, ʕʼ, ʕʷʼ, s, sˤ, ʂ, h, ɻ, w, l, lˤ, ɮ}

V={i, iː, ɪ, ɪː, e, eː, ɛ, ɛː, a, aː, ɐ, ɐː, u, uː, ʊ, ʊː, o, oː, ɔ, ɔː}

R1={ɻ, w, l}

R2={n, ŋ, l, ɻ, w}

Allophony Edit

Consonant clusters agree in labialization and pharyngealization.

Morphology Edit

It's suspected that Proto-Nautli was an agglutinative language. As Proto-Nautli's agglutinative character, there were lots of affixes to express morphological features.

Nouns Edit

Gender Edit

Proto-Nautli didn't distinguish between grammatical genders.

Number Edit

Proto-Nautli did have four numeri: Singular, Dual, Plural and Collective. The collective one couldn't stand alone, it had to be combined with either Dual or Plural.

The singular was unmarked, dual and plural were marked with suffixes, collective with prefixes.

Dual: -oon (tense-words, ending on consonant), -noon (tense-words, ending on vowel), -un (lax-words, ending on consonant), -nun (lax-words, ending on vowel).

Plural: -ok (tense-words, ending on consonant), -nok (tense-words, ending on vowel), -òk (lax-words, ending on consonant), -nòk (lax-words, ending on vowel).

Collective: voo- (tense-words, beginning on consonant), vool- (tense-words, beginning on vowel), vu- (lax-words, beginning on consonants), vul- (lax-words, beginning on vowel)


Singular Dual Plural
Unmarked pxeehqva (hand) pxeehqvanoon (two hands) pxeehqvanok (hands)
Collective doesn't exist voopxeehqvanoon (both hands) voopxeehqvanok (all hands)

Case Edit

Nominative: Unmarked

Accusative: The accusative has different forms depending on the noun's number:

Singular Dual Plural
Tense -ee, -l -al -l*
Lax -i, -l -ăl -l*

The plural -l replaces the final k present in the nominative plural.

tèltè → tèltèl - finger (ACC.SG)

tèltènun → tèltènunăl - two fingers (ACC.DU)

tèltènèk → tèltènèl - fingers (ACC.PL)

pxahtan → pxahtanee - man (ACC.SG)

pxahtanoon → pxahtanoonal - two men (ACC.DU)

pxahtanek → pxahtanel - men (ACC.PL)

Instrumental: The ending is -(ee)ke/-(i)kè in the singular and dual but -nke/nkè in the plural (also replaces final k)

tèltè → tèltèkè - finger (INS.SG)

tèltènun → tèltènunkè - two fingers (INS.DU)

tèltènèk → tèltènènkè - fingers (INS.PL)

pxahtan → pxahtanke - man (INS.SG)

pxahtanoon → pxahtanoonke - two men (INS.DU)

pxahtanek → pxahtanenke - men (INS.PL)

Punctual (exactly at): The ending is -(t)eet/-(t)it, also substitutes plural -k

Genitive: The genitive is also subject to weird allomorphy depending on number:

Singular Dual Plural
Tense -(p)ool -pool -pool
Lax -(p)ul -u

-w

The plural -k is also dropped.

Allative: -(ee)je/-(i)jè

Ablative: -soh/-sèh

Adessive: -nxa/-nxă

Inessive: -roo/-ru

Superessive: -nel/-nèl

Subessive: -lor/-lòr

The Ablative, Adessive, Inessive, Superessive and Subessive cases assimilated root final dentals

Case stacking seems to have existed.

Verbs Edit

Tense Edit

Tense was relative in Proto-Nautli. There was also spatial tense. It distinguished future and non-future tense, and far and near spatial tense. The forms are given in the following list.

Non-future proximal: -(ee)tee / -(i)ti

Non-future medial (umarked): -t(a) / -t(ă)

Non-future distal: -(oo)too / -(u)tu

Future proximal: -(ee)kee / -(i)ki

Future medial (umarked): -k(a) / -k(ă)

Future distal: -(ò)pòk / -(o)wok

As you can see, almost all forms are seperable into two regular morphemes.

Verb Valency Edit

Transitive verbs are marked and there are Causative forms. The causativizer for intransitive verbs is identical to the transitive verb marker (TRANS). The causative morpheme for transitive verbs (CAUS) has its own special form and creates ditransitive verbs. All morphemes are prefixes and the causative usually occured before the transitive verb marker.

TRANS: v(u)- / v(oo)-

CAUS: ja(n)- / jă(n)-

Examples: Edit

qòrtul - to eat (in general)
vuqòrtul - to eat something
jăvuqòrtul - to make someone eat something, to feed someone something
Mood and Modality

Mood and Modality were also marked in the verb, though little is known about it.

VocabularyEdit

cat - lxejeen

crab - jangè

daughter - jăngvi

day - theneeth

death - qong

dog -  jikvò

to eat - qòrtul

finger - pèlik

fire - olxes

freeze - neen

hand - vèstu

head - vòqvă

heart - qvikăh

I - pi

grass - nxaroo

language - jănxă

life - tlaral

lizard - ratxa

man - pxahtan

moon - jasxong

night - untxu

to see - hèjă

shoe - lxuhnè

sun - nxasx

sky - srajako

water - paleeng

women - engva

you - kvò