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Proto-Matlapogiogân
matlapogiogâŋ tiaka
4000BK p-mat
Pronunciation /mad.la.po.ˈʝo.ɣæŋ ˈt͡ʃa.ka/
Period ca. 6700BK - 3700BK
Spoken in Southern Amalan
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Ydtobogȧndeki
Classification Matlapogiogân, Ydtobogȧntiaky
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Fusional
Alignment nominative-accusative
Credits
Created by Sḿtuval

PhonologyEdit

Proto-Matlapogiogân did not make a distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants like its predecessor. Most consonant clusters were reduced to one phoneme due to sound change. Both tables have romanizations for each phoneme.

Reconstructed Proto-Matlapogiogân Consonant Inventory
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal *m m *n n *ŋ ŋ
Plosive *p p *t t *k k
Fricative *v b *z d *ɣ g *ʁ h
Approximant *ɹ r *j i *w u
Lateral *l l
Reconstructed Proto-Matlapogiogân Vowel Inventory
Front Central Back
High *i i *u u
High-Mid *e ê *o o
Mid *ə y
Low-Mid *ɛ e
Near-Low *æ â
Low *a a

Note that /n t z l k ɣ/ palatalize to /ɲ t͡ʃ ʒ ʎ c ʝ/ before /ɛ e i/. If /t/ or /z/ preceded /i/, the /i/ was silenced (i.e. heti /ʁɛt͡ʃ/) unless the word becomes impossible to pronounce.

GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

Unlike nouns, verbs had only two inflectional paradigms. Which paradigm a verb belonged depended mainly on the simple finite form of the verb (which was also often the active conditional initial present AND the verb's dictionary form), and whether it ended in <i> or <ê>. However, there were significantly more -i verbs than -ê verbs.

The simple finite has no other use and is not thought of as the active conditional initial present, as these two are different and in a few verbs are different phonologically and orthographically.

The marking of transitivity disappeared in Proto-Matlapogiogân. In some cases, however, transitivity became a lexically marked quality, as the original suffixes were kept but heavily eroded.

More verbs than before are irregular, and due to sound change (and common usage in some verbs) many regular verbs became moderately or heavily irregular. Some examples of heavily irregular verbs are ât, oki, timetê, dimâti.

Proto-Matlapogiogân verbs conjugate according to two similar paradigms and have become slightly more irregular. Person and number were not marked in Proto-Matlapogiogân verbs, and in other related languages aren't either.

Verbal DistinctionEdit

Verbs distinguished four things: tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

The four tenses are: anterior past, past, present, and future. The anterior past was used to express the pluperfect, the remote past, and the relative past. The past was used to express the perfect, and the recent past. The present expressed the present and the near future. The future expressed the remote future and relative future.

The three aspects are: repetitive, initial, progressive. The repetitive expressed habituality and iterativity. The initial expressed the inchoative and prospective aspects. It also expressed simple present in the present. The progressive expressed both the continuous and the progressive.

The five moods are: indicative, subjunctive, subjunctive II, conditional, and imperative. The second subjunctive (or subjunctive II) was used in the same situations as the older optative and potential moods. The interrogative was not considered a separate mood, and unlike other moods was expressed using the auxiliary adverb kipa.

The two voices (there may have been more, though) are: active and passive. There may have been a reflexive voice. However, reciprocal expressions were rare and not regarded as a distinct voice in verbal inflection.

Verbs conjugated for active voice are slightly shorter than for passive because active voice is unmarked.

Principal PartsEdit

To fully conjugate most verbs, one needs to know four principal parts: the simple finite, the simple non-finite, the indicative initial non-past, and the second subjunctive initial past. In example, for the regular verb degami "say/tell", its principal parts would be listed as degami, degamâ, degamire, degamyr.

A verb is considered slightly irregular if a principal part appears different than it would if the verb was regular, i.e. itodi, itode, itodire, itodyr "know".

A verb is considered moderately irregular if this happens with more than one principal part, i.e. tii, tie, tire, tir "speak".

A verb is considered heavily irregular if the principal parts are not useful in determining many of the other forms of the verb (or if all four principal parts are irregular), i.e. ât, âdo, âdire, âtr "locative copula"


First ConjugationEdit

Verbs of this conjugation end in <i> in the simple finite. A stands for anterior past, P stands for past, R stands for present, and F stands for future.

Active Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive R Repetitive F Initial A Initial P Initial R Initial F Progressive A Progressive P Progressive R Progressive F
Indicative irur irot iro irop irer iret ire irep irênr irêd irên irêm
Subjunctive I iir iiot iio iiâr iiât iiâ iiênr iiêd iiên
Subjunctive II yir idiot idio yr idit idi iinr idid idin
Conditional iiot iio iiop it i ip iid iin iim
Imperative inio iniop ine inep inên inêm
Passive Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive R Repetitive F Initial A Initial P Initial R Initial F Progressive A Progressive P Progressive R Progressive F
Indicative irurud irotud irogud iropud irerud iretud iregud irepud irênrud irêdud irênud irêmud
Subjunctive I iirud iiotud iiogud iiârud iiâtud iiâgud iiênrud iiêdud iiênud
Subjunctive II yirud idiotud idiogud yrud iditud idigud iinrud ididud idinud
Conditional iiotud iiogud iiopud itud igud ipud iidud iinud iimud
Imperative iniogud iniopud inegud inepud inênud inêmud

Second ConjugationEdit

Verbs of this conjugation end in <ê> in the simple finite. A stands for anterior past, P stands for past, R stands for present, and F stands for future.

Active Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive R Repetitive F Initial A Initial P Initial R Initial F Progressive A Progressive P Progressive R Progressive F
Indicative êrur êrot êro êrop êrer êret êre êrep êrênr êrêd êrên êrêm
Subjunctive I êr êiot êio êiâr êiât êiâ êiênr êiêd êiên
Subjunctive II êr êdiot êdio êur êdit êdi ênr êdid êdin
Conditional êiot êio êiop êt ê êp êd ên êm
Imperative ênio êniop êne ênep ênên ênêm
Passive Suffixes
Repetitive A Repetitive P Repetitive R Repetitive F Initial A Initial P Initial R Initial F Progressive A Progressive P Progressive R Progressive F
Indicative êrurud êrotud êrogud êropud êrerud êretud êregud êrepud êrênrud êrêdud êrênud êrêmud
Subjunctive I êrud êiotud êiogud êiârud êiâtud êiâgud êiênrud êiêdud êiênud
Subjunctive II êrud êdiotud êdiogud êurud êditud êdigud ênrud êdidud êdinud
Conditional êiotud êiogud êiopud êtud êgud êpud êdud ênud êmud
Imperative êniogud êniopud ênegud ênepud ênênud ênêmud

ParticiplesEdit

Proto-Matlapogiogân had a set of participles, one for each tense-voice combination, of which there were six. Participles were made by adding a suffix to a verb in the non-finite. The non-finite replaced the finite ending -i or -ê with a non-finite ending -â or -a (or rarely -e), i.e. bet "go (root)" > betâminêma "going"

Sometimes, participles were used to make derived nouns from verbs. This form was made by deleting the word-final <a>. The passive participles also changed the word-final <d> to <n>, i.e. deloguda (participle suffix) > delogun (nominalizing suffix).

The past participles corresponded to the perfect and past participles of other languages.

Participle Suffixes
Past Present Future
Active deliêma minêma porêma
Passive deloguda minaguda poraguda

InfinitivesEdit

Like with the participles, the anterior past was replaced by the past, the past was replaced by the non-past (which became the present), and the non-past was replaced by a new future participle. The infinitive suffixes were also added to the non-finite form, i.e. bet "go (root)" > betâtêm "to go"

The past infinitives corresponded to the perfect infinitives of other languages.

Infinitive Suffixes
Past Present Non-Past
Active têm iêm pêm
Passive tud gud pud

NegativesEdit

A negative verb was made with the particle placed right after the verb, although remnants of the old negative prefix can be found in semantically negative verbs such as tâtabê "forget", as opposed to tabê "remember/recognize".

In phrases such as "He didn't take any food" or "They don't have flowers", a negative adjective made from ibia "one" and the archaic negative prefix was used. For example, in imodêrên tâ rak têbiâd ârogeg "They don't have flowers", têbiâd (which really means "not one") is used with the accusative singular of the word for flower (ârogeg from ârogel) instead of using only the accusative plural. So, the phrase can be glossed as have-IND.PROG.PRS.ACT NEG 3PL.NOM NEG-one-F.ACC flower-ACC.SG, or "They don't have not one flower", and is technically a double negative.

NounsEdit

The tripartite ergative and absolutive cases merged into a nominative-accusative nominative case. Due to this, only some of both cases' noun and adjective suffixes survived. The same happened with the dative and ablative cases, which merged into a new dative case. The cause of this is partly due to the similarity of each case's suffixes.

The five declensions of Proto-Ydtobogȧntiaky changed and simplified due to sound change and less disambiguation resulting from less cases.

First DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always masculine.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Nominative n ne kron krone
Accusative n nu kron kronu
Dative r ri kror krori
Genitive b be krob krobe
Instrumental h hu kroh krohu
Locative d de krod krode

Second DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always feminine.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Nominative m me nom nome
Accusative m mu nom nomu
Dative l li nol noli
Genitive i ie noi noie
Instrumental h hu noh nohu
Locative t te not note

Third DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension are always neuter.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Nominative a ê heta hetê
Accusative a y heta hety
Dative â/ar (rare exception) i hetâ heti
Genitive e ie hete hetie
Instrumental o u heto hetu
Locative ar are hetar hetare

Fourth DeclensionEdit

Nouns of this declension can be any gender.

Singular Plural Example (Sg.) Example (Pl.)
Nominative l/k le/ke dek deke
Accusative g gu deg degu
Dative t ti det deti
Genitive i ie dei deie
Instrumental h hu deh dehu
Locative d de ded dede