Pronunciation */dʒùdʒáŋ/
Period ca. 6000BK - 5000BK
Spoken in Southeast Avesta
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system None
Classification Songke
Basic word order SOV
Morphology Fusional / Isolating
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Created by smappy



  Labial/Labiodental Alveolar Palato-Alveolar/Retroflex Velar
plain sibilant
Nasal *m *n
Stop Voiceless *p *t *ts *tʃ <č> *k
Voiced *b *d *dz *dʒ <j> *g
Fricative Voiceless *f *s *ʃ <š> *x
Voiced *v *z
Approximant *l *ɻ <r>


  Front Central Back
Close *i *i: *ɨ: *u *u:
Mid *e *e: *ǝ: *o *o:
Open *a *a:


There are three tones: high <>1, low <`>, and falling <ˆ>.


The syllable takes the form C(G)V(:)(G)X where G is *w or *j <y> and X can be one of *p *t *k *m *n *ŋ *x.



Nouns can take one of two forms: a 'plain' form and a 'possessed form' consisting of a suffix -k.

Examples: *to: 'tree' *to:k 'tree of...' *î:x 'milk' *î:k 'milk of...'


  Plain Nominative Reflexive
1s ŋwa ŋwǝ:t ŋwa ŋwaŋ
2s no:ŋ non no:ŋ no
3s sǝ̂:t sû xu
1p ŋwà cha ŋwǝ̀:t cha ŋwà ŋwaŋ
2p nò:ŋ cha nòn cha nò:ŋ no
3p sû cha sǝ̂:t cha sû xu


Verbs can take one of three forms: a 'plain' form, an irrealis form indicated by a backing of the main vowel and an inchoative form consisting of a tone change and/or vowel change. Verbs generally take the form of a monosyllabic root followed by an idiosyncratic suffix. The suffix may be left off if the verb forms part of an embedded clause.


Verb Forms
  Plain Irrealis Inchoative
'come' lên di lô:yn di lèn di
'give' gày gòy gan
'present' ŋwà ɲi ŋwò ɲi ŋwày ɲi
'sit' jaw be jow be jèw be


Noun PhrasesEdit

Noun phrases are head-final and composed of a head optionally preceded by a quantifier phrase, possessor, and/or relative clause. The order of these modifier phrases may vary depending on the precise meaning of the phrase.


(ɲìk) (ŋwǝ:t no:ŋ gày gàn xû) (ŋwa) fêyk
(two.LINK) (I.NOM you give PERF LINK) (I) hair.POSS
'two of my hairs which I gave you'


Proto-Jujang sentences are generally SOV.



Nouns are given in plain form followed by possessed form.


Verbs are given in plain form followed by irrealis and inchoative form.

Sound Changes from Proto-SongkeEdit

Tone SandhiEdit

low tone > rising tone / _ high tone
high tone > low tone / second syllable

Consonant Changes IEdit

alveolar+w > retroflex
labial > velar / _w
alveolar sibilant > palato-alveolar / _y
y > Ø / after palato-alveolar or palatal
w > kw, y > ch / #_
h > Ø / _w, _y
h > ŋ

Vowel Changes IEdit

ay > e, āy > ē / _C
i > e / _y
u > o / _w, _y
yē, yi > i, yī > ī
long vowels > short vowels / _CC

Final ConsonantsEdit

n > Ø / _nasal
C > Ø / n_#
b > w, d ḍ > r, g > x / _#
w r x > Ø / C_#

Dorsal Nasals and GlidesEdit

ɲw > ɲ, wɲ > ŋ, ɲy > y, yɲ > ɲ
wŋ > ŋ, yŋ > ɲ

Postalveolar ConsonantsEdit

short vowel > i /_ɲ, _ṭ, _ḍ
ɲ ṭ ḍ > ŋ k g / _#
ly > ʎ > y
ṭ ḍ ṣ ẓ > k g x ɣ / _a
ṭ ḍ ṣ ẓ > č j š r

Postvocalic Approximant ElisionEdit

Vl > ǝ where V is short
Vr > ɨ where V is short
V:l > Vw where no glide intervenes
V:r > Vy where no glide intervenes
other l and r > Ø / VG_(C)#