FANDOM


Proto-Enkean
Pronunciation /'εŋkɪən/
Period ca. 10000BK - 7000BK?
Spoken in Western Tungwana
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system None
Classification Enkean
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Fusional or agglutinative?
Alignment Accusative?
Credits
Created by Ashucky

The Proto-Enkean language is the reconstructed language of the Enkean languages spoken by the Proto-Enkeans.

PhonologyEdit

The phonology of Proto-Enkean is assumed to have been reconstructed successfully. Nonetheless, there are a few open questions that linguists are yet to fully uncover.

Consonants (by general consensus)
Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal Plain *m *n *ŋ ~ *ɴ
Labialised *mʷ *nʷ *ŋʷ ~ *ɴʷ
Palatalised *mʲ *nʲ *ŋʲ ~ *ɴʲ
Plosive Plain *p *b *t *d *k *g
Labialised *pʷ *bʷ *tʷ *dʷ *kʷ *gʷ
Palatalised *pʲ *bʲ *tʲ *dʲ *kʲ *gʲ
Aspirated *pʰ *bʱ *tʰ *dʱ *kʰ *gʱ
Ejective *pʼ *tʼ *kʼ
Fricative Plain *f *v *s *z *x *ɣ *χ *ʁ *h
Labialised *fʷ *vʷ *sʷ *zʷ *xʷ *ɣʷ *χʷ *ʁʷ *hʷ
Palatalised *fʲ *vʲ *sʲ *zʲ *xʲ *ɣʲ *χʲ *ʁʲ *hʲ
Liquid Plain *l *r
Labialised *lʷ *rʷ
Palatalised *lʲ *rʲ
Approximant *j̊ *j *ʍ *w

The existence of some phonemes is, however, still disputed, even though they've been accepted into the standard model. The uvular fricatives have also been reconstructed as plosives *q and *ɢ, however neither aspirated nor ejective equivalents could be reconstructed, unlike the other plosives. The fricative *hʷ is often thought to be the same as *ʍ, and *hʲ as *j̊ , while *j̊ itself is often reconstructed as *ç or even *ʃ. Some linguists also reconstruct *h as a glottal stop, rather than a fricative.

By contrast to the complex consonantal system of Proto-Enkea, the vocalic system seems to have been simpler.

Vowels (by general consensus)
Front Back
High *i (*i:) *u (*u:)
Mid *e (*e:) *o (*o:)
Low *a (*a:)

The reconstruction of long vowels is tentative. Some linguists reconstruct long vowels instead of diphthongs while others reconstruct diphthongs instead of long vowels.

TranscriptionEdit

Within the scope of Enkean studies, a general agreement has been reached regarding various possible reconstructions. Below is the explanation of how Proto-Enkean is written (instead of using the IPA):

Transcription of consonants
Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal Plain *m *n₁ *n₂
Labialised *mŭ *n₁ŭ *n₂ŭ
Palatalised *mĭ *n₁ĭ *n₂ĭ
Plosive Plain *p *b *t *d *k₁ *g₁
Labialised *pŭ *bŭ *tŭ *dŭ *k₁ŭ *g₁ŭ
Palatalised *pĭ *bĭ *tĭ *dĭ *k₁ĭ *g₁ĭ
Aspirated *pḫ *bḫ *tḫ *dḫ *kḫ *gḫ *ch
Ejective *p' *t' *k'
Fricative Plain *f *v *s *z *k₃ *g₃ *k₂ *g₂ *h
Labialised *fŭ *vŭ *sŭ *zŭ *k₃ŭ *g₃ŭ *k₂ŭ *g₂ŭ *hŭ
Palatalised *fĭ *vĭ *sĭ *zĭ *k₃ĭ *g₃ĭ *k₂ĭ *g₂ĭ *hĭ
Liquid Plain *l *r
Labialised *lŭ *rŭ
Palatalised *lĭ *rĭ
Approximant *j₂ *j₁ *w₂ *w₁
Transcription of vowels
Front Back
High *i (*ī) *u (*ū)
Mid *e (*ē) *o (*ō)
Low *a (*ā)

GrammarEdit

VocabularyEdit

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.