Pronunciation Unknown
Period ca. 13000BK - 10000BK
Spoken in Eastern Amutet
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system None
Classification Amutetikam-Tiledem
Basic word order VSO
Morphology Nonconcatenative / Fusional
Alignment Accusative
Created by smappy

History Edit

Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem is the ancestor of both the Amutetikam and Tiledem languages. It was likely spoken around the Fish River and Akelek River in about 13000BK by hunter-gatherers who were familiar with fishing and did not dwell in permanent houses.

Phonology Edit


  Labial Alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Velar Glottal
plain lateral
Nasal *m *n
Stop Plain *p *t *tɕ *k
Prenasalized *mp *nt *ntɕ *ŋk
Aspirated *pʰ *tʰ *tɕʰ *kʰ
Prenasalized Aspirated *mpʰ *ntʰ *ntɕʰ *ŋkʰ
Fricative *s *h
Approximant *l

Note: *h occurs only word-initially.


  Front Central Back
Close *i *ɯ *u
Open *a


Accent in Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem may appear on either the first or second syllables of a word. It will be symbolized here by an acute accent ´.  Accent usually appears on the first syllable.

Phonotactics and AllophonyEdit

The Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem word must take the form CV(CV)...(C) where any consonant may appear in any position but all words must begin with a consonant.

A process of vowel harmony applies where all vowels in a word must fall into one of two categories. The process is regressive, meaning that it begins with the final vowel in the word and changes all preceding vowels to fit into that category.

Category A consists of the vowels /a i/. Category B consists of the vowels /a u ɯ/.

The vowel /a/ becomes /ǝ/ when unaccented.

Morphology Edit


The Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem noun stem usually consists of a CCaC stem. The stem takes a vowel between the first two consonants and also a vowel suffix, which, when combined with accent, produce a valid case form of the word.

For example, the root ɕ-ŋkʰat 'fabric' may take the vowel infix ǝ, the vowel suffix u, and second-syllable accent to produce the standalone form ɕǝŋkʰátu 'fabric.NOM'.

Noun Inflection
Meaning Infix Suffix Accent
Nominative a u Second
Accusative / Oblique u u First
'In' a u First
'On' a i First
Dative i i First


The Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem verb root usually consists of a CCC stem. The root takes two vowels to produce a verb stem, and then an obligatory vowel suffix conveying the speaker's attitude towards the event expressed.

For example, the root ʔ-ɹ-l 'love' may take the vowels a and ǝ to produce the stem ʔáɹǝl 'love.affirmative', which may take the suffix -u 'neutral attitude' to produce the verb form ʔáɹǝlu 'love.affirmative (neutral speaker attitude)'.

Verb Inflection
Meaning First Vowel Second Vowel
Affirmative a a
Negative ɯ a
Subjunctive ɯ u
Verb Suffixes
Meaning Suffix
Neutral Attitude u
Positive Attitude i
Negative Attitude ɯ

To indicate tense and mood an auxiliary verb is often used immediately following the main verb. This verb consists of the stem ha- followed by a suffix representing tense.

Auxiliary Forms
Tense/Mood Form
Present ha
Past hátǝ
Present Potential hápǝ
Past Potential hámǝ

Syntax Edit

Noun Phrases Edit

In Proto-Amutetikam-Tiledem the noun phrase usually consists of a determiner followed by a noun. Modifiers follow the noun.

The determiner changes based on the case of the noun it modifies.

Nominative ʔa
Accusative / Oblique ʔa
'In' ʔa ~ ʔǝ
'On' ʔi
Dative ʔi

Sentence Edit

Word order is generally VASO where A is the auxiliary verb. Adverbs usually occupy the second position in the sentence.

Lexicon Edit

Nouns Edit

bite - k-mas
bush - ŋkʰ-lan
day - n-tal
eye - tɕ-tʰaŋ
fabric - ɕ-ŋkʰat
fish - tʰ-kam
hand - kʰ-tɕas
home - mp-tat
mountain - kʰ-lat
river - tʰ-tal
shield - tɕʰ-nat
speech - t-lap
summer - tɕʰ-nas
tribe - k-tʰam
water - p-ntal
winter - k-pas
wolf - ŋk-pʰan

Pronouns Edit

1s - kʰǝ-ŋál
2s - mǝ-ŋál
that - ŋǝ-ŋál

Verbs Edit

go - ntʰ-p-t
join - ŋk-ɹ-t
know - ntʰ-t-n
love - ʔ-ɹ-l
put - kʰ-t-n
see - tɕʰ-pʰ-n

Modifiers Edit

Adjectives Edit

many - ntǝmí
many - ʔá ntǝmí

Adverbs Edit

today - hámpɯ