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This is about the ancestor language of Handapachi spoken in about 500 AK, it is supposed to be a predecessor of Modern Handapachi language.

The Handapachis started to write their own language in about 200 AK, however, the spelling of Handapachi language at that time was very inconsistent, there were no orthography for the Handapachi language at that time, nevertheless, linguists still managed to reconstruct many details of the Old Handapachi language of 500 AK.

phonologyEdit

consonants
labials dento-alveolars palatals velars glottals
nasals m n ŋ
plosives p b t d k g ʔ
affricates ts
fricatives s z x
sonorants w r l j
vowels
front center back
high i u
mid ə
low a

Diphthongs: /ai/ /au/ /ia/ /ua/ /əi/ /əu/

The quality of /ua/ in ʔua "you(singular)" and the /wa/ in wara "surronding" were different, they follow different routes of evolution, as they are reflected as e and wara respectively in Modern Handapachi, thus it is thought that all diphthongs were falling diphthongs, which indicated that they were considered as different sounds, although not every writer at that time distinguish them.

Compared to the Old Handapachi language of 1500 BK, the Old Handapachi language of 500 AK has lost initial consonant clusters, which produced several new diphthongs; also, all syllables can only be ended with occlusives.

GrammarEdit

  • Basic Word Order: SOV(Subject-Object-Verb)

Morphologically, cliticized pronouns has been further grammaticalized as suffixes.

Nominal MorphologyEdit

number:

  • dual: -u
  • plural: -i

Verbal MorphologyEdit

Tense-Aspect-Mood:

  • indicative:
    • present: -Ø/-a
    • present continuative: -sa/-asa
    • past imperfective: -rə-/-arə
    • past perfective: -t/-at(from 't-' "to be")
  • imperative: -i
  • subjunctive: -zə/-azə

Negation: twa(independent form)/=zdwa(clitic form)

personal agreements(for agents):

  • 1.SG: -i
  • 2.SG: -u
  • 3.SG: -Ø/-a
  • 1.DU: -im
  • 2.DU: -am
  • 3.DU: -sam~-am
  • 1.PL: -ik
  • 2.PL: -aŋ
  • 3.PL: -sak~-ak

The causative suffix of the Old Handapachi language of 1500 BK has disappeared, leaving the ablauted root alone.

Also, verb had become a closed class as of 500 AK, only a fixed number of verbs was used, and like Modern Handapachi, verbal phrases were frequently used to express meanings that are expressed with a single verb in other languages.

PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns:

nominative:

  • 1.SG: ʔi
  • 2.SG: ʔu
  • 3.SG: ʔa~ʔar-
  • 1.DU: ʔim
  • 2.DU: ʔam
  • 3.DU: sam
  • 1.PL: ʔik
  • 2.PL: ʔaŋ
  • 3.PL: sak

accusative/oblique:

  • 1.SG: ʔia
  • 2.SG: ʔua
  • 3.SG: ʔara
  • 1.DU: ʔima
  • 2.DU: ʔama
  • 3.DU: səma
  • 1.PL: ʔiya
  • 2.PL: aŋga
  • 3.PL: səga

Demonstrative:

  • this: ni
  • that: ʔa
  • that: da
  • who/what: wa
  • here: ni-nta
  • there: ʔa-nta

ExamplesEdit

  • kəwtaw ʔəymasam - kəwta-u ʔəym-a-sam - tree-DU stand-IND.IPFV-3.DU.A - there are two trees.
  • kiku makati - kik-u mak-a-t-i - bird-DU see-IND.PFV-1.SG.A - I saw two birds.
  • ʔuwa rəwbai - ʔua rəwb-a-i - 2.SG.ACC love-IND.IPFV-1.SG.A - I love you.