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This is an article about the Old Handapachi language of 1500 BK, it is supposed to be a predecessor of Modern Handapachi language.

Generally, it is thought that the Handapachis had no writing system as of 1500 BK, all information about the Old Handapachi language of 1500 BK were known from Amutetikam and Umbric texts.

PhonologyEdit

consonants
labials dento-alveolars palatals velars labialized velars glottals
nasals *m *n *ŋʷ?
plosives *p *b *t *d *k *g *kʷ? *gʷ?
affricates *ts
fricatives *s *z *x *xʷ?
sonorants *w *r *l *j

It is uncertain if labialized velars were phonemes at all, the labialized velars might have already been merged with plain velars in 1500 BK.

vowels
front center back
high *i *u
mid
low *a
  • Diphthongs: */ai/ */au/ */əi/ */əu/

It seems that */i/ and */u/ only appeared in unstressed syllables.

There were many words with consonant clusters in the Old Handapachi language of 1500 BK:

  • kləp - cliff(cognate with modern Handapachi chip "cliff")
  • nəlk - road/way(cognate with modern Handapachi nuk "road/way")

GrammarEdit

  • Basic Word Order: SOV(Subject-Object-Verb)

Subject pronouns might be encliticlized to another word, however, it seems that they can attach to any word of the sentence.

There were many compound verbs, new verbs were commonly created by combining an existing verb with another word, rather than by using affixes.

Verbal MorphologyEdit

Tense-Aspect-Mood:

  • indicative:
    • present: -ʔa/-a
    • present continuative: -sa/-asa
    • past imperfective: -rə-/-arə
    • past perfective: -t/-at
  • imperative: -i
  • subjunctive: -zə/-azə

causative: -ə(triggers the change of the stem vowel)

negation: twa(particle, usually used with the subjunctive form of verbs)/=twa(clitic, usually used with the subjunctive form of verbs)/ʔazətwa(aux verb, probably from ʔa-zə=twa)

PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns:

  • 1.SG: ʔad(emphatic)/ʔəd/-d(enclitic form)
  • 2.SG: ʔaw(emphatic)/ʔu/-u(enclitic form)
  • 3.SG: ʔar~ʔa
  • 1.PL: yaŋ(emphatic)/yəŋ
  • 2.PL: ʔaŋ
  • 3.PL: sa(emphatic)/sə/-s(enclitic form)

Demonstrative:

  • this: ni
  • that(distant neutral, also used as 3rd singular personal pronouns): ʔa
  • that: da
  • who/what: wa
  • here: ni-nta
  • there: ʔa-nta

NumeralsEdit

  1. One/single: nat-/nad-
  2. Two/a pair: pagʷ-

PostpositionsEdit

  • in/at: na
  • to: ra
  • (accusative): ha(used with personal pronouns only)

ExamplesEdit

  • kəlta ʔəyma - kəlta ʔəym-a - tree stand-IND.IPFV - there are trees.
    • kəltas ʔəyma - kəlta=s ʔəym-a - tree=3.PL stand-IND.IPFV - there are trees.
    • kəlta ʔəymas - kəlta ʔəym-a=s - tree stand-IND.IPFV=3.PL - there are trees.
  • ʔəd kləkʷ makat - ʔi kləkʷ mak-at - 1.SG tree see-IND.PFV - I saw birds.
    • kləkʷəd makat - kləkʷ=d mak-at - bird=1.SG see-IND.PFV - I saw birds.
    • kləkʷ makatəd - kləkʷ mak-at=d - bird see-IND.PFV=1.SG - I saw birds.
  • ʔəd ʔuha rəwbəʔa - ʔəd ʔu=ha rəwb-ə-a - 1.SG 2.SG ACC love-CAUS-PRES - I love you