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Modern Uraki
Pronunciation Unknown
Period ca. 1300AK-
Spoken in Bawim islands, Eastern Amutet
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Uraki logogram
Classification Ulitan
Western Ulitan
Fish River
South Fish River
Uraki
Typology
Basic word order SVO
Morphology isolating
Alignment Neutral(Nominative-Accusative marked purely by word order)
Credits
Created by k1234567890y
Land of Nanarulamuts

Modern Uraki is spoken in the red area

Modern Uraki is a Western Ulitan language spoken on the Bawim islands near the southeast Amutet by the Nanarulamuts.

Modern Uraki evolves from Classical Uraki and is written using the Uraki logogram, and since the grammar of Modern Uraki is similar to that of Classical Uraki, Modern Uraki can still read documents written in Classical Uraki.

Since the grammatical of Modern Uraki and Classical Uraki does not differ significantly, and Modern Uraki still uses the Uraki logogram, the written form of Modern Uraki is almost identical to the written form of Classical Uraki, and speakers of Modern Uraki can still read texts written in Classical Uraki without difficulty even most of the Modern Uraki speakers don't know the pronunciation of characters of the Uraki logogram in Classical Uraki.

PhonologyEdit

consonants
labials dentoalveolars palatals velars/glottals
nasals m n
plosives p b t d k g
sonorants/fricatives w r l j h
  • The syllable-final /h/ of Classical Uraki has disappeared in Modern Uraki, which created pitch accents in certain dialets.
  • Although fricatives are not phonemic, it is known that in some dialects, /t/ is assibilated to [s] before /i/ and /i:/.
vowels
front central back
high i i: u u:
mid e ə o
low a

syllable structure: (C)V(C), voiced plosives are de-voiced in syllable codas.

stress: ultimate, fixed on the stem

/i:/ is transcripted as <í>; /u:/ is transcripted as <ú>; /j/ is transcripted as <y>; /ə/ is transcripted as <ë>.

GrammarEdit

  • Basic word order: SVO
  • Adpositions are prepositions

The basic word order is SVO, but it is possible to use the VOS and the OSV word order to mark the topic of a sentence.

some wordsEdit

pronouns:

personal pronouns:

Independent forms:

  • 1st sg: yam
  • 2nd sg: yat
  • 3rd sg: a
  • 1st pl: ki(exclusive)/kari(inclusive)
  • 2nd pl: ri
  • 3rd pl: ye
  • refl: tu

adhere forms:

  • 1st sg: ka
  • 2nd sg: ra
  • 3rd sg: a
  • 1st pl: ki(exclusive)/kari(inclusive)
  • 2nd pl: ri
  • 3rd pl: i

personal pronouns can directly put after a noun to mark the possessor of a noun.

morphologically, the adhere forms of pronouns are a part of the verbal phrase, they are actually subject agreements of the verb, but they are still seen as full-standing words. Adhere forms are not dropped even if the subject is a pronoun:

  • yam ka ik yat. - I see you(one can also say "ka ik yat" to convoy the same meaning, but the form "yam ka ik yat" emphasizes the subject).
  • natu-ya a ik huk - The person sees huks.

interrogative pronouns:

  • who: me
  • what: ma

demonstratives:

  • this: ami
  • that: aya
  • the: ya(definite article, also used to start the relative clause)

prepositions:

  • at/in/on: at
  • to: am
  • from: ak
  • with/and: ap
  • using: arik
  • for/because: aruk
  • through: aptam/adi

numerals:

the numeral system is base-10:

  1. one: ami
  2. two: to
  3. three: alí
  4. four: malí
  5. five: karik(same as "hand")
  6. six: karkami
  7. seven: karto
  8. eight: karkalí
  9. nine: karmalí
  10. ten: tarik
  11. eleven: tarik-ami/tarkami
  12. twelve: tarik-to/tarto
  13. thirteen: tarik-alí/tarkalí
  14. fourteen: tarik-malí/tarmalí
  15. fifteen: tarik-karik/tarkarik
  16. sixteen: tarik-karkami
  17. seventeen: tarik-karto
  18. eightteen: tarik-karkalí
  19. nineteen: tarik-karmalí
  20. twenty: mëna
  • thirteen: alí tarik
  • fourty: malí tarik
  • fifty: karik tarik
  • sixty: karkami tarik
  • seventy: karto tarik
  • eighty: karkalí tarik
  • ninety: karmalí tarik
  • ordinal number: ha-
  • ever: humu
  • never: hunggamu
  • seldom: humeral
  • sometimes: humar
  • often: hunggaman
  • usually/always: hëwam-hëwam
  • once: hëwam ami
  • twice: hëwam to
  • thrice/three times: hëwam alí
  • four times: hëwam malí
  • five times: hëwam karik

...

  • first time: hëwam ha-ami
  • second time: hëwam ha-to
  • third time: hëwam ha-alí
  • fourth time: hëwam ha-malí
  • fifth time: hëwam ha-karik

...

reduplication of numerals can be used for distributive numerals(for the definition of distributive numerals, one can read http://wals.info/chapter/54 )

conjunctions:

  • and/also: i/kaye~ke(originally mean "also, completely")
  • or: ta
  • even: tata
  • but: amar

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