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Modern Tungwani (Tùñwanmàu) has been spoken since 600 AK, in southwestern Teles. It is in the family Tungwani Languages, and is a direct descendant of Pre-Modern Tungwani. Its sister language is Western Tungwani.

PhonologyEdit

VowelsEdit

There are a total of four vowels and three dipthongs in Modern Tungwani.

Modern Tungwani Vowel Inventory
Front Unrounded Back
High /i/

<i>

/u/

<u>

Mid /e/

<e>

Low /a/

<a>

The three diphthongs which can be created from the above vowels are /ai̯/, /ei̯/, and /au̯/

TonesEdit

Modern Tungwani is a tonal language, where the tone of the vowel affects the meaning of the word. There are three types of tones, known as the rising (á), lowering (à), and rising-falling (â) tones. There are also toneless vowels, which are extremely prevalent in multisyllabic words and grammatical particles. The rising tone begins at the extra low tone or mid tone and end at the extra high tone (˩˥~˧˥). The falling tone begins at the extra high tone or mid tone and ends at the extra low tone (˥˩~˧˩). The rising-falling tone begins at the mid tone, travels to the high tone, and ends back at the mid tone (˧˦˧). Toneless vowels are typically spoken at the mid tone if they are standing alone, or can take the final tone change of the preceding tonal vowel. In diphthongs, tone is indicated by the first written vowel. Tones may be applied to all vowels and diphthongs in the language.

Examples:

ná /na˩˥/

mà /ma˥˩/

mâuñ /mauŋ˧˦˧/

na /na(˧)/

bàumalh /bau˥˩malh˧~bau˥˩malh˩/

ConsonantsEdit

Modern Tungwani has a total of sixteen consonant phonemes.

Modern Tungwani Consonant Inventory
Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ m /n/ n /ŋ/ ñ
Trill /r/ r
Plosive /p b/ p b /t d/ t d /ʔ/ h
Fricative <ɸ β> f v /s/ s /ʃ/ x /x/ q
Approximant /w/ w
Lateral /l/ l

Syllable Structure Edit

The most common syllable structures are CV, CVN, and CVN[α PoA]C[α PoA], though syllables can become as complex as C(w)V(N[α PoA]/L)(C[α PoA]). In the following list of possible syllable combinations, C: consonant, P: Plosive, N: nasal, V: vowel/diphthong, W: /w/, L: /l/, and H: /ʔ/.

C V

C W V

C V C

C W V C

C V N[α PoA] P[α PoA]

C W V N[α PoA] P[α PoA]

C V N H

C W V N H

GrammarEdit

Nouns and ArticlesEdit

Unlike many languages, Modern Tungwani nouns do not have gender. There is no plural form of nouns, as amount is indicated with numbers and the unkown number (ł). Noun words typically have the falling tone, but there are exceptions.

Tungwani nouns are not declined for gender or case. They can be declined for number by using certain articles to indicate singularity and plurality. The standalone noun is understood to always be plural, and this only changes when an article is added. The addition of the definite article (wi) makes the noun both singular and definite. In order to maintain plurality while also including the definite article, the suffix -deñ should be added to the base noun. These same rules apply to the negative article (qùn), which denotes the absence of the noun.

The addition of the singular indefinite article (qwi) makes the noun both singular and indefinite. The addition of the plural indefinite article (deñ*) makes the noun indefinite while preserving its original plurality.

When a noun is followed by a number (n) without any articles, that noun is understood to be present n number of times. The addition of a number between the noun and its article tuples that number. In instances where the addition of this number preserves the plurality of the original noun, the addition of the suffix -deñ is optional and typically reserved only for formal occasions.

*It should be noted that in this case, deñ is not a suffix but rather a wholly separate word.

Examples:

tù (horses)

tù wi (the horse)

tùdeñ wi (the horses)

tù qùn (no horse)

tùdeñ qùn (no horses)

tù qwi (a horse)

tù deñ (some horses)

tù mâuñ (one horse)

tù din (two horses)

tù mâuñ wi (the single horse)

tù(deñ) din wi (the double horses)

tù mâuñ qwi (a single horse)

tù mâuñ qùn (not a single horse)

tù(deñ) din qùn (not two horses)

VerbsEdit

Transitive verbs follow the agent and precede the patient. Intransitive verbs follow the agent. Transitivity is unmarked. Tense is marked on verbs using particles.

Verb Tenses
Past Present/Infinitive Future
Suffix [null]

The particle làu is placed in front of verbs in order to mark the hypothetical mood. It can also mean if when placed at the end of a sentence. To indicate the imperative mood, the particle bàu is placed before the verb. In order to mark negativity on a verb, the particle qùn should be placed between the verb and its tense marker; if a tense marker is absent, the particle is placed after the verb.

The copula is placed between the subject and its complement. For the past and future copula, the respective tense particles for verbs are used as standalone verbs. When the verb is infinitive or present, the word is used.

Examples:

Tù qwi dú mà bûh qwi. (A horse spoke to a fox.)

Tù wi làu dú mà bûh wi. (The horse may have spoken to the fox.)

DescriptorsEdit

Adjectives Edit

Adverbs Edit

SyntaxEdit

Modern Tungwani is one of the few Tungwani languages to have an SVO word order. It is an isolating language with some fusional traits.

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