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Mountaindwellers

place where the mountaineer language is spoken.

The Handapachi language(Handapachi means "mountain-people" in the Handapachi language) is a language spoken on the mountain side of the central Amutet by the Handapachis.

Although being surrounded by Akuriga-speaking peoples, Songke-speaking peoples and Kanic-speaking peoples, Handapachi language is not endangered, the community of Handapachi language is not shrinking and most children of the Handapachis speak the Handapachi language as their first language.

The language is a language isolate, although historical forms of the Handapachi language has been known. Also, it is suspected to be related to the Zempachi languages by some linguistics, though there are almost no evidence can prove the connection between the Handapachi langauge and the Zempachi langauges.

Below is the information about the Handapachi language at 2000 AK, about the historical languages of the Handapachis, see Old Handapachi language of 500 AK and Old Handapachi language of 1500 BK.

The Handapachi language has a strong tendency to borrow words from other languages, comparable to Finnish, and to English and Japanese to a lesser extent, most words of the Handapachi languages are borrowed from other languages, it is estimated that only less than 500 words can be counted as native words of the Handapachi language, when not counting compound words.

phonologyEdit

consonants
labials dento-alveolars postalveolars/palatals velars/glottals
nasals m n ɲ
plosives p b t d k g
affricates ts tʃ dʒ
fricatives s z ʃ h
sonorants w r l j
vowels
front back
high i u
mid e o
low a
  • /a/ is actually a central vowel, with at least an allophone [ɑ].

transcriptionEdit

  • a - /a/
  • b - /b/
  • ch - /tʃ/
  • d - /d/
  • e - /e/
  • g - /g/
  • h - /h/
  • i - /i/
  • j - /dʒ/
  • k - /k/
  • m - /m/
  • n - /n/
  • ny - /ɲ/
  • o - /o/
  • p - /p/
  • r - /r/
  • s - /s/
  • sh - /ʃ/
  • t - /t/
  • ts - /ts/
  • u - /u/
  • w - /w/
  • y - /j/
  • z - /z/

syllable structure: (C)V(C), every syllable must end with a vowel, a nasal or a voiceless stop, unless the next syllable starts with a voiced stop or fricative.

GrammarEdit

Handapachi language is predominantly head-marking, it is the head noun rather than the dependent being marked.

Verb is a closed classes, one can't form new verbs except using words with existing verbs phrasally.

word orderEdit

  • basic word order: Subject-Object-Verb(SOV)
  • adpositions are postpositions
  • demonstratives, numerals, relative clauses precede the noun they modify, adjectives can precede or follow the noun they modify, other modifiers usually precede the word they modify

Relative clauseEdit

One can simply put a sentence in front of a noun to form relative clause.

One can also use an internally-headed relative clause, it is also a common way to form relative clauses.

to relativize the object of the internally-headed relative clause, one uses the suffix -m(or its equivalent nam):

  • anta na pak minake segataratam makatak. - anta na pak minak-e pawati sega-tar-ata-m mak-atak. - they saw the fish that the person caught there.

to relativize the subject of the internally-headed relative clause, one uses the prefix ku- and the suffix -m(or its equivalent nam), the prefix ku- follows the object agreement prefix:

  • anta na pak minake segakutaratam makatak. - anta na pak minak-e pawati sega-ku-tar-ata-m mak-atak. - they saw the person who caught some fish there.

nounsEdit

there are four declension paradgims for nouns, which are defined by the endings of the singular forms of nouns, the inflection table is listed below:

noun number tables singular dual plural
a-nouns -a -o -e
i-nouns -i -i/-e/-o -e
u-nouns -u -o -i
consonantal nouns -u -i

possessive:

  • 1.sg: i-/iy-
  • 2.sg: u-/uy-
  • 3.sg: da-/day-
  • 1.du: im-/ime-
  • 2.du: am-/ame-
  • 3.du: sem-/seme-
  • 1.pl: ik-/ike-
  • 2.pl: an-/ane-
  • 3.pl: seg-/sege-
  • 3.indef: a-/ay-
  • alienable: te-/tey-

some nouns are obliged to use possessive prefixes, like kinship terms and body part terms, possessive prefixes are also used with adpositions.

Nouns have three possessive classes: alienable, inalienable, non-possessible, some inalienable nouns are obliged to be used with possessive prefixes. terms for kinships and body-parts are inalienable nouns with obliged possessive prefixes; terms for people other than kinships, animals, natural things are non-possessible.

for example:

Inalienable:

a-ntata("child"):

  • my child: i-ntata
  • ypur child: u-ntata
  • X's child: X da-ntata
  • a/the child of us two: ime-ntata
  • a/the child of you two: ame-ntata
  • a/the child of them two: seme-ntata
  • our child: ike-ntata
  • your child: ane-ntata
  • their child: sege-ntata
  • a child/someone's child: a-ntata

a-muzu("milk"):

  • my (own) milk: i-muzu
  • your (own) milk: u-muzu
  • X's (own) milk: X da-muzu
  • our(us two) (own) milk: ime-muzu
  • your(you two) (own) milk: ame-muzu
  • their(them two) (own) milk: seme-muzu
  • our (own) milk: ike-muzu
  • your (own) milk: ane-muzu
  • their (own) milk: sege-muzu
  • some milk/someone's (own) milk: a-muzu


  • my (bought) milk: iy-a-muzu
  • your (bought) milk: uy-a-muzu
  • X's (bought) milk: X day-a-muzu
  • our(us two) (bought) milk: im-a-muzu
  • your(you two) (bought) milk: am-a-muzu
  • their(them two) (bought) milk: sem-a-muzu
  • our (bought) milk: ik-a-muzu
  • your (bought) milk: an-a-muzu
  • their (bought) milk: seg-a-muzu

Alienable:

notka("knife"):

  • my knife: i-te-notka
  • your knife: u-te-notka
  • X's knife: X da-te-notka
  • a/the knife of us two: ime-te-notka
  • a/the knife of you two: ame-te-notka
  • a/the knife of them two: seme-te-notka
  • our knife: ike-te-notka
  • your knife: ane-te-notka
  • their knife: sege-te-notka
  • someone's knife: a-te-notka
  • a knife: notka

Non-possessible:

tuga("land"):

  • my land: tuga i-tey-oda
  • your land: tuga u-tey-oda
  • X's land: tuga X da-tey-oda
  • a/the land of us two: tuga ime-tey-oda
  • a/the land of you two: tuga ame-tey-oda
  • a/the land of them two: tuga seme-tey-oda
  • our land: tuga ike-tey-oda
  • your land: tuga ane-tey-oda
  • their land: tuga sege-tey-oda
  • a land: tuga

verbsEdit

The present tense is used to refer to an ongoing event, a continuously happening event, a repeatedly happening event or a habit at now; the past imperfective is used to refer to an ongoing event, a continuously happening event, a repeatedly happening event or a habit; the past tense(or aorist/preterite) is used to refer to an event that happened once in the past, or an event that has been completed at some point in the past, frequently but not always corresponding to the past tense of English.

both of the tenses

verb agreements:

subject agreements:

present:

  • 1.sg: -e
  • 2.sg: -o
  • 3.sg: -a
  • 1.du: -em
  • 2.du: -am
  • 3.du: -am
  • 1.pl: -ek
  • 2.pl: -an
  • 3.pl: -ak

past imperfective:

  • 1.sg: -ari
  • 2.sg: -aru
  • 3.sg: -ara
  • 1.du: -arim
  • 2.du: -aram
  • 3.du: -aram
  • 1.pl: -arik
  • 2.pl: -aran
  • 3.pl: -arak

past(aorist/preterite):

  • 1.sg: -ati
  • 2.sg: -atu
  • 3.sg: -ata
  • 1.du: -atim
  • 2.du: -atam
  • 3.du: -atam
  • 1.pl: -atik
  • 2.pl: -atan
  • 3.pl: -atak

subjunctive:

  • 1.sg: -azi
  • 2.sg: -azu
  • 3.sg: -aza
  • 1.du: -azim
  • 2.du: -azam
  • 3.du: -azam
  • 1.pl: -azik
  • 2.pl: -azan
  • 3.pl: -azak

imperative-hortative:

second person:

  • 2.sg: -i
  • 2.du: -iyam
  • 2.pl: -iyan

non-second person: -ar+present agreement suffix, only used with 3rd person and 1st person nonsingular

object agreements:

  • 1.sg: i-/iy-
  • 2.sg: u-/uy-
  • 1.du: im-/ima-
  • 2.du: am-/ama-
  • 3.du: sem-/sema-
  • 1.pl: ik-/ika-
  • 2.pl: an-/ana-
  • 3.pl: seg-/sega-

Aspects(placed before subject agreements):

  • continuative: -s/-as

passive voice: -ar(placed before subject agreements and aspect suffixes)

adverbial(not used with subject agreements): -i

nominalization: -m(equivalent to the noun nam)

negation: to(placed before the verb or the object of the verb)/-zo(placed after subject agreements)

question: -ma(suffixed after the thing being focused, somewhat that the question enclitic -chu in Imbabura Quechua[1])

derivationEdit

it seems that the reduplication of the first syllable of a noun can form a collective noun, meaning "the collection of ...", "the group of ...", "the thing that is consisted of the collection/group of ...", "the specie of ...", "the kind of ...", etc.

WordsEdit

The Handapachi language has no words "thing/object" in general, and Modern Handapachi has a very large amount of loanwords from surronding languages.

pronounsEdit

personal pronounsEdit

subject:

  • 1.sg: i/ane
  • 2.sg: u/ano
  • 3.sg: da/ana
  • 1.du: im
  • 2.du: am
  • 3.du: sam
  • 1.pl: ik
  • 2.pl: an
  • 3.pl: sak

object:

  • 1.sg: e
  • 2.sg: o
  • 3.sg: ara
  • 1.du: ima
  • 2.du: ama
  • 3.du: sema
  • 1.pl: ya
  • 2.pl: anga
  • 3.pl: sega

reflexive(derived from the word 'a-ko'("body, corpse") ): X-ko-ko (X = possessive prefixes)

demonstrativesEdit

  • this: nyi
  • that: da/a
  • here: nyinta
  • there: anta

((definite article): a)

interrogative pronounsEdit

  • who/what/where/when: wa
  • why: wa ka
  • how: wa na/wa te

nounsEdit

  • tooth: ay-akma
  • mouth: a-gop
  • tongue: a-zan
  • body/corpse/stem: a-ko(singular)/a-kow-(dual/plural)
  • abdomen/belly/front: a-zema
  • back: ay-apama
  • eye: ay-ema
  • face: a-terama
  • hand/arm: a-te
  • foot/leg: a-rakma
  • heart/mind: a-meta
  • hair(a single hair of an animal): a-mokma
  • hair(a collection/mass of hair of an animal): a-momokma
  • meat/flesh/muscle: a-zema
  • bone: a-pokma
  • milk: a-muzu
  • leaf(a simple piece of leaf): mok
  • a bunch of leaf/grass: momok
  • sky/day: anga
    • everyday/daily: anga-anga/anganga
  • land/soil: tuga
  • mountain: handa
  • hole: gop
  • water/river: guru
  • fire: pek
  • sea/lake: weku
  • valley: wahu
  • cliff: chip
  • stone/rock: dok
  • wind: pota
  • road/way/method: nuk
  • gold: garan
  • silver: suna
  • sun: ama
  • moon/month: gina
  • star: manta
  • light: amaka
  • night: zen
  • time/tide: daka
  • place: anta
  • source/spring: pita
  • goal/target: raka/ra(the ra-form is always singular)
  • friend/companion: a-kop/a-kokop
  • hatred: puka
  • (nominal clause ending): nam(equivalent to the nominalization suffix -m)
  • shape/form: kana
  • voice/sound/noise/word: gopka
  • speech/sentence: gogopka
  • person: pak
  • father: a-papa
  • mother: a-mama
  • grandfather: a-dada
  • grandmother: a-nana
  • brother/sister: a-kaka
  • son/daughter/child: a-ntata
    • everyone/everybody: pakpak
  • people/folk/nation/country: pachi
  • fish(as a countable individual): minaka
  • a school of fish: miminaka
  • bird: chika
  • a flock of bird: chichika
  • wing: chikma
  • fin: minama
  • feather: warama
  • scale: gazama
  • fork/forked stick: not
  • (unforked) stick/rod/discipline/law/rule/regulation: panta
  • food: aka
  • seat/location: imanka
  • house/home/building: gela
  • money: garanka
  • berry/fruit: jela
  • tree: kuta/ima
  • root: karap
  • flower: dama
  • chiki-chiki bird: chiki-chiki
  • ring/wheel: waraya
  • tool/machine/device/means/medium: teka
  • killer/murderer/bane: kepin
  • skin/hide/leather/surface: kama
  • cloth: ema
  • bark: kutakam
  • knife: notka
  • outsider/guest/foreigner/stranger/suspective person: namin
  • vengeance: chera
  • corpse: kapko
  • bud: osa
  • seed: mesa
  • lichen/moss: otsa
  • swamp/bog/marsh: metsa
  • slope: oza
  • surplus/rest/remains: teya
  • (possessive noun, used with non-possessible nouns): ay-oda
  • garden: rokomanta(<rokom+anta, rokom seems to be borrowed from old uraki rukum)
  • port: potagananta(<potagan+anta, potagan seems to be borrowed from old uraki putagam)
  • medicine: rokarak(seems to be borrowed from old uraki rukarak)
  • shark: babimakominaka(babimako+minaka, babimako seems to be borrowed from old uraki babimakuh)
  • plough: dabanta(borrowed from the Zempachi people?)
  • iron: shitugaga(borrowed from the Zempachi people?)
  • Samanga: samanga(borrowed from the Zempachi people?)
  • dog/hound: katuna(borrowed from the Zempachi people?)

verbsEdit

It seems that the Handapachi language does not have many verbs, and many of them are quite polysemous:

  • be: n-(present)/t-(past)
  • eat/drink/consume/erode: ak-
  • say/speak/talk/utter/make noise/discuss/debate/quarrel/swear: gopk-
  • hold/have(be similar to X = X a-kana od-)/support/make a living for(to tolerate/get used to X = X ka a-meta od-): od-
  • do/grasp/take/drive/ride/lead/guide/herd/lead: neb-
  • get/receive(learn = meta ra tar- ; find = mak-i tar-)/catch: tar-
  • use/employ/hire: tek-
  • make/create/build/establish/learn/study(create = meta na kan ; help X = X ka aza kan- ; help X do Y = X ka Y(the verb of Y is in adverbial form) aza kan- )/let/cause/cook/start/bear/carry/bring/begin: kan-("when A is an adjective, "X Y A kan-" means "X makes Y A")
  • walk/go/come/move/flow(swell/expand/grow(intransitive) = oma rak- ; extend(intransitive) = gana rak- ; shrink(intransitive) = tsi rak- ; follow/assist/trust X = X ay-apama na rak-)/dig/drill/swim/fly/run/crawl/climb/jump/leap: rak-(when A is an adjective, "X A rak-" means "X become A")
  • run/be fast: boz-
  • hit/beat/kick/strike/slaughter/thrust/push/shove/attack: pet-
  • throw/cast/pour/shove/forsake/forget(X ak rek- = forsake X ; X a-meta na rek- = forget X ; X a-puka ak rek- = forgive X)/shoot/to hold(a feast, party, discussion, etc.)/sow/invest/curse/illuminate/shine(amaka rek- = to shine/to illuminate): rek-
  • stand/sit/lie/exist/float/wait/stay/live/dwell/inhabit/occupy/reside/stay/dip/submerge/drown/be addict to/depend on/rely/trust: im-(also serves as a copula for adjectives, if A is an adjective, "X A im-" means "X be A")
  • press/tread/step/force/compell: iman-
  • put/bury/cover/hide/protect/defend(X ay-apama na Y em- = X protect/hide/cover Y)/establish/regulate/manage/govern/arrange/organize: em-
  • die/be extinct/cease to exist/disappear: kap-
  • kill/destroy/ruin/end/finish/stop/get rid of/weed/delete: kep-(V nam kep- = to stop V-ing/to finish V-ing)
  • mix/combine/connect/be related to/attach/stick/adhere/bind/tie/add/join/harass/interfere: zag-(X Y zag- = X tie/restrain Y ; X Y Z-ra zag- = X add Y into Z/X connect Y to Z ; X Y-ra zag- = X attach to/adhere to/be related to/stick to Y)
  • suck/draw/swallow/pump/attract/tow/pull: sup-
  • become: or-
  • see/hear/perceive/think/know/learn(see = ay-ema te mak- ; think = meta te mak- ; know/learn = meta ra mak-): mak-
  • tell/teach/inform: mek-
  • like/love: rub-
  • hate/disgust: puk-
  • burn/consume: pek-
  • be born/happen/appear/bud/start: os-
  • seperate/split/fork/share/divide/cut: notk-(X Y Z-ra notk- = X cut/divide Y into Z ; X Y Z-pita notk- = X Seperate Y and Z ; X Y-pita notk- = X is seperated from Y)
  • fight against/take revenge on/avenge/quarrel/debate: cher-

adjectiveEdit

  • near: ik
  • far: ak
  • inside: nyim
  • outside: nam
  • surrounding: wara
  • front/ancient: zem
  • back: apa
  • middle: nem
  • upside: aza
  • downside: ega
  • high/tall: doga
  • low: nok
  • long/tall: rama
  • short: kit
  • wide: gana
  • narrow: ep
  • large/big: oma
  • small/little: tsi
  • other/alternative: ora
  • good/just/fair: aza
  • bad/unjust/unfair: ruda
  • black: nyem
  • white: chit
  • happy: chera
  • sad: uk
  • hot/angry: peka
    • angry: meta-peka(lit: heart-hot)
      • being angry for a kin or an innocent person being murdered, harmed, mistreated or being treated unfairly maliciously, being angry for a malicious guy murdering, harming or unfairly treating a kin or an innocent person, being angry for a misbehavior of others, or being angry for a misbehaved or immoral person: azametapeka(lit: good-angry)
      • being angry for not gaining what one wants, or being angry for something that a normal person doesn't get angry for: rudametapeka(lit: bad-angry)
  • warm/generous/helpful/compassionate/empathic: hamba
    • (emotionally)warm/generous/helpful/compassionate/empathic: meta-hamba
  • calm/cool/analytical: lenka
    • calm/(mentally)analytical: meta-lenka
  • cold/unemotional/calculating/cruel: rim
    • unemotional/calculating/cruel: meta-rim
  • sticky: zaga
  • fit/suitable: akmaya
  • aware/seeing/hearing/understanding: maka
  • blind/deaf/unaware/numb/insensible/detached/dead: makto
  • reasonable: makikana
  • unreasonable/crazy: makikanto
    • being calm or not being angry for a kin or an innocent person being murdered, harmed, mistreated or being treated unfairly maliciously, being calm or not being angry for a malicious guy murdering, harming or unfairly treating a kin or an innocent person, being calm or not being angry for a misbehavior of others, or being calm or not being angry for a misbehaved or immoral person: makikanatolenka(lit: unreasonable-calm)/rudalenka(lit: bad-calm)(the meaning of rudalenka is wider, rudalenka also means "unemotional/emotionless/calculating/cruel" or "(emotionally)numb/detached")
  • hard/solid/stiff/difficult/firm: doka
    • die-hard/stubborn/persistent: meta-doka
  • emotional/sentimental/(emotionally)warm/compassionate/empathic: metaya
    • (emotionally)warm/compassionate/empathic: azametaya(good-emotional)
    • over-emotional: rudametaya(bad-emotional)
  • unemotional/unempathic/cruel/cunning/sly/calculating: metato
  • able: kana
  • unable: kanto
  • rich/fertile: ti
  • poor: tito

postpositionEdit

  • in/at: na(may also used for adverbs)
  • to: ra(into = nara ; onto = azara)
  • from: pita
  • using/with: te
  • with(accompanying with): kop
  • for/because: ka
  • (topic marker): gopki/gop

numeralEdit

Handapachi language had a senary (base 6) system, exact numerals can only modify verbs except one and two; while non-exact quantifiers, one, and two can modify nouns.

Numerals:

  1. one/single/alone/once: nat(attributive)/nadi(adverbial)
  2. two/pair/twice/again: po(attributive, always means "a pair of")/pawi(adverbial)
  3. three/thrice/three times: pawati
  4. four/four times: popawi
  5. five/five times: lotemani
  6. six/six times: ti
  7. seven/seven times: tinadi
  8. eight/eight times: tipawi
  9. nine/nine times: tipawati
  10. ten/ten times: tipopawi
  11. eleven/eleven times: tilotemani
  12. twelve/twelve times: poti
  • eighteen/eighteen times: pawatati
  • twentyfour/twentyfour times: popawati
  • thirty/thirty times: lotemanti
  • thirty-six/thirtysix times: teti

Non-exact quantifiers:

  • all: lo
  • many: imema~mema
  • some: ima(attributive)
  • few: chi

frequentative adverbs:

  • always/usually: dakadaka
  • frequently/often/many times: memadaka
  • sometimes: imadaka
  • Seldom: chi

examplesEdit

  • ako makari - a-ko mak-ari - I saw a body(imperfective)
  • ako makati - a-ko mak-ati - I saw a body(perfective)
  • aksa - ak-s-a - he is eating(ak- = eat/drink)
  • gopra segemata - gop=ra seg-em-ata - he put them into the hole
  • anga-anga dak atateka ake segakana - anga-anga dak a-tat-e=ka ak-e sega-kan-a he cooks for these children everyday
  • gela a gopki, oma ima - a gela gopki, oma im-a - that house is big./as for that house, it is big.
  • a gelama gopki oma ima? - a gela-ma gopki oma im-a? - is that house big?(asking about the thing)
  • a gela gopki oma imama? - a gela gopki oma im-a-ma? - is that house big?(asking about the size)
  • to da nebi! - don't do that!
  • to da pawi nebi! - don't do that again!
  • a pak to azema aki ruba - a pak to a-zema ak-i rub-a - that person doesn't like to eat meat.
  • a paki to guruna minaka taratak - a pak-i to guru=na minaka tar-atak - those people didn't caught fish in the river.