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Classical Uraki
Pronunciation Unknown
Period ca. 600AK-1300AK
Spoken in Bawim islands, Eastern Amutet
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Uraki logogram
Classification Ulitan
Western Ulitan
Fish River
South Fish River
Uraki
Typology
Basic word order SVO
Morphology isolating
Alignment Neutral(Nominative-Accusative marked purely by word order)
Credits
Created by k1234567890y

Classical Uraki, also called the Classical Ulitan language or the Classical Nanarulamut language, is a Western Ulitan language spoken on the Bawim islands(Classical Uraki: Rulamut Kami Rualam Bawim) near the southeast Amutet, the speakers are called Nanarulamuts(Nanarulamut is from the compound of nanar "people/folk" and rulamut "island", so Nanarulamut means "the Island folks").

Classical Uraki is written in a logogram, called Utayri Nanarulamut(literal meaning: Nanarulamut writing, it is also called the Uraki logogram), which is supposed to be inspired by the writing system of other languages.

Written Uraki, which is based on Classical Uraki, is the official language of the Nanarulamutland.

PhonologyEdit

It seems that Classical Uraki doesn't have any fricatives(other than the glottal continuant /h/, but /h/ might not be a fricative at all) in its native or nativized words, this characteristic has been inherited by Modern Uraki, which is evolved from Classical Uraki.

consonants
labials dentoalveolars palatals velars/glottals
nasals m n
plosives p b t d k g
sonorants/fricatives w r l j h

The only fricative is /h/, however, /h/ can also be considered as an approximant.

It is known that in actual speech, syllable-final /h/ was usually omitted, so for example, the word damah("shape") was usually pronunced as [da'ma] or [da'ma:] rather than [da'mah].

In the continental dialect, /p/, /t/, /k/ were aspirated plosives [pʰ] [tʰ] [kʰ], while in dialects of Bawim islands, /p/, /t/, /k/ were usually not aspirated.

vowels
front central back
high i u
mid ə
low a

syllable structure: (C)V(C), voiced plosives are de-voiced in syllable codas.

stress: ultimate, fixed on the stem

transcription: the pronunciations of most alphabets correspond to their pronunciations in IPA, but /j/ is transcripted as <y>; /ə/ is transcripted as <e>.

GrammarEdit

  • Basic word order: SVO
  • Adpositions are prepositions
  • Negation precedes the word or phrase it negates
  • The question word starts a sentence
  • Adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, possessors and relative clauses follow the noun they modify

Question: ran

Negation: mu

Subjunctive: maut(developed from Old Uraki mautə, the 3rd singular subjunctive form of the Old Uraki verb ma-i "to do")

reduplication of verbs can be used to denote frequentative meanings; reduplication of adjectives can be used to intensify its meaning; reduplication of nouns can be used to denote plural or collective forms; reduplication of numerals can be used to denote distributive numerals; reduplication of interrogatives can be used to denote meanings like "anyone", "anything", etc.

verbEdit

verbs have some affixes marking voices:

  • Passive mark: ni-(prefixed to verb)
  • Applicative(location): -an
  • Applicative(Instrumental): -ik
  • Applicative(Benefactive): ti-

relative clauseEdit

Relative clauses start with the invariant relativizer "ya". In more formal variants, only the subject can be relativized, but in more colloquial variants, no such restrictions exist, so in most colloquial variants, at least subjects, direct objects, indirect objects and obliques can be relativized, though in many cases, a resumptive pronoun(usually the 3rd singular pronoun "a") is used when relativizing indirect objects and obliques.

some wordsEdit

Click here for a word list of Classical Uraki: File:Classical uraki.ods

pronounsEdit

personal pronouns:

  • 1st sg: ka/yam*
  • 2nd sg: ra/yat*
  • 3rd sg: a
  • 1st pl: ki(exclusive)/kari(inclusive)
  • 2nd pl: ri
  • 3rd pl: iyay(from older *i+*yay)
  • refl: tu
  • Note:
    1. personal pronouns can directly put after a noun to mark the possessor of a noun.
    2. the form yam and yat are emphatic forms.

interrogative pronouns:

  • who: maya/may
  • what: ma

demonstratives:

  • this: ami
  • that: aya
  • the: ya(definite article, also used to start the relative clause)

prepositionsEdit

  • at/in/on: at(also adverbial marker)
    • in: nih at
    • on/over: wah at
    • under: kuh at
    • in front of: ayp at
    • in back of/after: apah at
    • around: akum at
    • by: in at
  • to: am
    • into: nih am
    • onto: wah am
  • from: ak
  • with/and: ap
  • using: arik
  • for/because: aruk
  • through: aputam/adi
  • as/like: aran

numeralsEdit

the numeral system is base-10, and it uses 5 as a sub-base

  1. one: amu
  2. two: taw
  3. three: aliw
  4. four: maliw
  5. five: karik(same as "hand")
  6. six: karik-ami
  7. seven: karik-taw
  8. eight: karik-aliw
  9. nine: karik-maliw
  10. ten: tarik
  11. eleven: tarik-ami
  12. twelve: tarik-taw
  13. thirteen: tarik-aliw
  14. fourteen: tarik-maliw
  15. fifteen: tarik-karik
  16. sixteen: tarik-karik-ami
  17. seventeen: tarik-karik-taw
  18. eightteen: tarik-karik-aliw
  19. nineteen: tarik-karik-maliw
  20. twenty: menah
  • thirteen: aliw tarik
  • fourty: maliw tarik
  • fifty: karik tarik
  • sixty: karik-ami tarik
  • seventy: karik-taw tarik
  • eighty: karik-aliw tarik
  • ninety: karik-maliw tarik
  • hundred: taytarik
  • ordinal number: ha-
  • ever: humeh
  • never: hunggameh
  • seldom: humeral
  • sometimes: humar
  • often: hunggaman
  • usually/always: hewam-hewam
  • once: hewam ami
  • twice: hewam taw
  • thrice/three times: hewam aliw
  • four times: hewam maliw
  • five times: hewam karik

...

  • first time: hewam ha-ami
  • second time: hewam ha-taw
  • third time: hewam ha-aliw
  • fourth time: hewam ha-maliw
  • fifth time: hewam ha-karik

...

reduplication of numerals can be used for distributive numerals(for the definition of distributive numerals, one can read http://wals.info/chapter/54 )

conjunctionsEdit

  • and/also: i/kayay(originally mean "also, completely")
  • or: tah
  • even: tahtah
  • but: amar
  • before: ayp
  • after: apah
  • then: atawi
  • when: ahap(<at hap)/at hap
  • if: ham

post-classical developmentEdit

In post classical era, the following sound changes occur( Classical Uraki > (Late Classical Uraki and/or Early Modern Uraki >) Modern Uraki):

  • ia > iə > i:
  • ua > uə > u:
  • ai > e
  • au > o
  • iu > i:
  • ui > ɯ/ɨ > i
  • h > Ø / _#(which created a pitch accent of the last syllable in several dialects)
  • i,u > Ø / VC_CV(before stressed syllables, and also some other syllables, and this sound change does not always occur)

the following sound changes occur in the continental variant of post-classical Uraki, the continental variant of post-classical Uraki is also called "Continental Uraki"( Classical Uraki > (intermediate stages >) Continental Uraki):

  • p > f > h / _V
  • t > s / _V
  • k > x / _V
  • l > j(this happens before ui > ɯ/ɨ and ai > ɛ and at about the same time when j > dʑ > tɕ)
  • j > dʑ > tɕ / _V
  • r > l / !#_(in the beginning place, r > l > n) (happened after l > j)
  • t > l / _# (happened after l > j)
  • h > Ø / (in all places)
  • Vh > V: / _C or _#
  • b > p
  • d > t
  • g > k
  • ia > iə > i > e
  • ua > uə > u
  • i > e
  • ai > ɛ
  • au > o
  • iu > y > wi
  • ui > ɯ/ɨ
  • ə > i

vowel harmony:

  • a > ʌ / following syllable contains a heavy vowel
  • o > u / following syllable contains a heavy vowel
  • u > o / following syllable contains a light vowel
  • wi > ø / following syllable contains a light vowel
  • ɛ > e / following syllable contains a heavy vowel
  • e > ɛ / following syllable contains a light vowel

(/a/ /o/ /ɛ/ /ø/ are light vowles, /ʌ/ /u/ /e/ /wi/ /ɯ/ are heavy vowels, /i/ is an neutral vowel)

exampleEdit

  • ran ra ik napan-ka? - Q 2.SG see friend-1.SG - Did you see my friend?
  • iyay miral huk taw - 3.PL kill huk two - they killed two huks.
  • iyay mu miral huk taw - 3.PL NEG kill huk two - they didn't kill two huks.
  • huk taw ni-miral - huk two PASSIVE-kill - two huks were killed.
  • natu-ya kumay rumut-a ap nia-a - person-th plow land-3.SG with/and child-3.SG - the person plows his field with his child
  • bawim mirak nih at mit - fish swim be.inside at water- fish swim in water
  • arithmetic expressions:
    • A ni-mamar arik B peran C - A+B=C
    • A ap B peran C - A+B=C
    • A ap B C - A+B=C
    • A ni-makuwar arik B peran C - A-B=C
    • A ni-mayman arik B peran C - A×B=C
    • A B peran C - A×B=C
    • A B C - A×B=C
    • A ni-mapanay arik B peran C (numar D) - A÷B=C(…D)
  • ka pakuy pekar umpati at wayman ak kar at rukum ya. - 1.SG like read book at be.more fro sit at garden the. - I prefer reading books to sitting in the garden.
  • ka kar at rukum ya at pakuy ak miral kanuk - 1.SG sit at garden at like from kill pig - I'd rather sit in the garden than to slaughter pigs.

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