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Roots reconstructed for Proto-Arhoan and derived proto-languages Edit

Proto-Arhoan
Proto-Western Arhoan
Proto-Eastern Arhoan
*kí-a
to do
*-ča
agentive derivational suffix
*kí-n-
to do
*ahte-
to make
*ahte-
to do
*athe-
to make
*maka-
to create
*maga-
to make, to create
*maga-
to create
*-ta
agentive derivational suffix
*-ta
[unproductive, few lexicalized words]
*-ta
agentive derivational suffix
*kèama
man
*čæama
man
*kjama
man
*vúrki
wolf
*vúldži
wolf
*vúrki
wolf
*kyrèi
dog
*kylæj
dog
*kirji
dog
*ròtòu
wheel, circle
*ladau
wheel, circle
*rodou
circle, ring
*-he
nominalizer
*-he
unproductive, lexicalized
*-(h)e
[unproductive, lexicalized]
*-m-
nominalizer
*-m-
productive
*-m-
productive
*aj-
one
*ajse
one
*ajme
one
*haksa
two
*haksa
two
*aksa
two
*tarum
three
*tarum
three
*tarum
three
*mèate
four
*mæade
four
*mjade
four
*nejnoe
five
*nejnoe
five
*nejnoe
five
*kasús
six
*kazús
six
*kazús
six
*pajsòa
seven
*pajsá
seven
*pajsoa
seven
*assén
eight
*assén
eight
*assén
eight
*utohsa
nine
*utohsa
nine
*utósa
nine
*metsos
ten
*mecos
ten
*metsos
ten
*metmet
hundred
*medmet
hundred
*metmet
hundred
*kaisrá
great number, many
*kaislǽ
thousand
*kaisrá
many
*hiki-
to speak, to tell
*hidži-
to speak
*igi-
to tell
*har-
high
*hal-se
high
*arva-
high
*taòn-
big, large
*tán-va
big, large
*taon-
big, large
*-ko-
verbalizer
*-ko- / -go-
productive
*-ko- / -go-
unproductive, few lexicalized forms
*taòn-ko-
to enlarge
*tángo-
to enlarge
*taonko-
to enlarge
*-se
adjectivizer
*-se
productive
*-se
unproductive
*-va
adjectivizer
*-va
unproductive, few lexicalized forms
*-va
unproductive, many lexicalized forms
*hiki-m-u
word
*idžimu
word
*igimu
word
*tapòa
war
*tabá
war
*taboa
war
*-ja-
verbalizer
*-ja-
unproductive
*-ja-
productive
*tapòa-ja-
to war
*tabá-ja-
to war
*tapoa-ja-
to war
*tapòa-ta/-ki-a
warrior
*tabá-dža
warrior
*taboa-ta
warrior
*hèòp-
to speak, to please
*hæap- / *hæab-
to please
*eop- / *eob-
to speak
*sít-
to search
*šít-
to search
*sít-
to search
*-ra-
completizer
*-la-
productive
*-
not finded
*sit-ra-
to find
*šíd-la-
to find
*-
not finded
*hankè-
to find, to meet
*hangæ-
to meet
*anke-
to find
*kaòt-i
head
*kádi
head
*kaodi
skull
*teke-i
bone
*tedžei
bone
*tegei
bone
*ker-m-i
head, skull
*čelmi
head of animal
*kermi
skull
*tòr-i
horn
*tali
horn
*tormi
horn
*hòat-
to see
*hát- / *hád-
to see
*oat- / *oad-
to see
*séh-
good
*séh-
good
*sé-va
good
*mák-
wise
*mák-se
wise
*mák-va
wise
*ahet-u
day
*ahedu
day
*aedu
day
*ryk-he-i / *ryk-m-i
night
*lygmi
night
*rikhei
night
*hèur-i
sun
*hæuli
sun
*euri
sun
*kóu-i
moon, month
*kóuhei
moon, month
*kóumi
moon, month
*sòu-ja- / *sòu-ko-
to light
*saugo-
to light
*souja-
to light
*pá-
to stand
*pǽ-
to stand
*pá-
to stand
*ir-
to be
*il-
to be
*ir-
to be
*het-
to go
*het-
to go
*et-
to go
*tahi-
to may, to be able
*tahi-
to may, to be able
*taj-
to may, to be able
*súk-
to want, to desire
*súk- / *súg-
to want
*súk- / *súg-
to desire
*tampè-
hard
*tampæ-
hard
*tampe-
hard
*híri-
soft
*híli-
soft
*íri-
soft
*fás-
breast
*fásmi
breast
*fáshei
breast
*mokot-i
finger, toe
*mogodi
finger, toe
mogodi
finger, toe
*pèk-
fire
*pèkmi
fire
*pèkhei
fire
*sahu-m-u
smoke
*sahumu
smoke
*saumu
smoke
*apam-
to work
*abam-
to work
*abam-
to work
*tèpè-
to burn
*tæpæ-
to burn
*tepe-
to burn
*kisu-
to desire
*čizu-
to desire
*kizu-
to wish
*rèv-
to let
*læv-
to let
*rev-
to let
*ikru
ice
*iglu
ice
*ikru
ice
*javi
water
*javi
water
*javi
water
*íramu
cloud
*ílamu
cloud
*íramu
cloud
*keser
hand
*kezel
hand
*kezer
hand
*asár
blood
*azál
blood
*azár
blood
*hepi
eye
*hepi
eye
*epi
eye
*arhòi
bear
*alhai
bear
*aroi
bear
*herki
deer
*helgi
deer
*erki
deer
*mahtoi
moose
*mahtoi
moose
*mathoi
moose
*atá-
to lead
*adǽ-
to lead
*adá-
to lead
*atá-ki-a/-ta
leader
*adǽdža
leader
*adáta
leader
*siheu
true
*šiheu
true
*siheu
true
*teterki
beaver
*cedzeldži
beaver
*tederki
beaver
*pihsi
mouse
*pihši
mouse
*písi
mouse
*rauhai
lynx, bobcat
*lauhai
lynx, bobcat
*ravai
lynx, bobcat
*òtkòu
coast, bank
*atkau
coast, bank
*otkou
coast, bank
*táre-
long
*tǽle-
long
*táre-
long
*kente-
short
*čende-
short
*kente-
short
*píti
bee
*píci
bee
*píti
bee
*torhoi
drone, wasp
*tolhoi
wasp
*toroi
drone
*jánta
woman
*jǽnda
woman
*jánta
woman
*tupu-
to dig
*tubu-
to dig
*tubu-
to dig
*kuf-
to fit
*kuf- / *kuv-
to fit
*kuf- / *kuv-
to fit
*fársi
horse
*fǽlzi
horse
*fársi
horse
*okvai
seal
*okvai
seal
*okvai
seal
*tuntoi
whale, great fish
*tundoi
great fish
*tuntoi
whale
*askèa
fish
*askæa
perch
*askja
fish
*tuhuki
animal
*tuhuči
animal
*túki
animal
*hanòa
ghost
*haná
ghost
*anoa
ghost
*asa
father
*aza
father
*aza
father
*ama
mother
*ama
mother
*ama
mother
*òtja
brother
*adza
brother
*otja
brother
*tètka
sister
*cætka
sister
*tetka
sister
*ashèa
son
*ašhèa
son
*ashja
son
*amhèa
daughter
*amhæa
daughter
*amja
daughter
*tureha
grass
*tuleha
grass
*turja
grass
*kerfu
leaf
*čelvu
leaf
*kerfu
leaf
*matsènu
knife
*macænu
knife
*matsenu
knife
*kipu
stone
*čibu
stone
*kibu
stone
*keormu
tribe
*čeolmu
tribe
*kjormu
tribe
*tèòfu
house
*cæavu
house
*tjovu
house
*pòaru
mountain
*pálu
mountain
*poaru
mountain
*hampai
oak
*hambai
oak
*ampai
oak
*tantèhi
tree
*tandæhi
tree
*tantei
tree
*hapou
river
*habau
river
*abou
river
*tòpu
hill
*tabu
hill
*topu
hill
*òanheu
earth, ground
*ánheu
earth, ground
*oaneu
earth, ground
*tehenmu
sky
*tehenmu
sky
*ténmu
sky
*tehma
god
*tehma
god
*téma
god
*perku
foot
*pelgu
foot
*perku
foot
*ahsi
sea, lake
*ahši
lake
*ási
sea
*eikeu
village
*eigeu
village
*eigeu
village
*murku
milk
*mulgu
milk
*murku
milk
*vaitoi
flower
*vaidoi
flower
*vaitoi
flower

Western-Arhoan substratum - Ätlan language Edit

Ätlan phonology Edit

/p t k/ [p t k] /b d g/ [b d g] /t͡s t͡ʃ/ [c č] /d͡z d͡ʒ/ [dz dž] /s ʃ h/ [s š h] /v z ʒ/ [v z ž] /m n/ [m n] /l/ [l] /j/ [y]

/i u/ [i u] /e o/ [e o] /ə/ [ə] /æ ɒ/ [ä a]

/æi ɒi ei əi oi ui/ /æu ɒu eu əu ou iu/

CVC

Ätlan Eastern Arhoan
mäläm ant mælæmi ant
hapal apple habalu apple
tahan bow tahanu bow
məməs- raw məms- raw
bakkə child bakka child
peč field pedžu field
čalak worm čaladži worm
neišə snow neišu snow
darta wood dardau wood