| Ancient Rrahah |
|Spoken in||Ytdobogȧn Peninsula, Amalan|
|Basic word order||VSO|
Little was changed in matters of vowel inventory from Proto-Gigxkpoyan, the main difference is that Rrahah displayed vowel harmony (a shared characteristic with Central Ancient Gigxkpoyan and Southern Ancient Gigxkpoyan)
|Front Unrounded||Front Rounded||Back|
|High||*i i||*y y||*u u|
|Mid||*e e||*ø ø||*o o|
|Low||*æ ä||*ɑ~ɒ a|
Ancient Rrahah Vowel Harmony was primarily backness harmony, pairing up u and y, ø and o, ä and a. e and i seem to have been neutral to the harmony processes. Backness Harmony could affect both roots and affixes.
The secondary process of Vowel Harmony was Height Harmony; It distinguished only high and non-high levels. Roots were not affected by Height Harmony.
There seems to have also existed a marginal rounding harmony, ɑ~ɒ depended of whether there was or not another rounded vowel in the word, but that doesn't seem to have been phonemic.
|Nasal||*m m||*n n||*ɲ ni||*ŋ ng|
|Plosive||*p *pʰ p ph||*t *tʰ t th||*t͡ʃ *t͡ʃʰ c ch||*k *kʰ k kh|
|Fricative||*f *v f v||*s *z s z||*(ç ʝ)||*x~h *ʁ~ɦ h rr|
|Approximant||*w w||*ɹ r||*j j|
Aspirated stops were considerably rarer than plain stops.
Palatals followed by back vowels were also not that common.
/ɹ/ and /ɺ/ did not contrast at coda position.
ɦ and ʁ, h and x probably were at free variation.
ç and ʝ were allophones of h and ʁ, respectively, before i and y
It can be reconstructed that stress could be only in the three last syllables of the word, It was normally penultimate unless either the ultimate or the antepenultimate was a heavy syllable (i.e. had coda consonants). If both the ultimate and the antepenultimate where heavy (and the penultimate wasn't) the antepenultimate was preferred.
To clarify (H stands for heavy and L for light, " marks the stress)
All light syllables, penultimate is stressed
If the penultimate is heavy it will always be stressed
In the case it wasn't heavy, other syllables could receive the stress:
If both the antepenultimate and the ultimate syllable were heavy, stress felt on the antepenultimate.
Verb conjugation in Ancient Rrahah was realized through both prefixes and suffixes. Due to the vowel harmony processes these affixes can be divided into two 'classes' (mainly to make it easier to explain things): The Dominant, which ruled over the roots vowels, and The Recessive, that were rule over by the root. All suffixes are recessive, but the same cannot be said for the prefixes.
The verb initial consonant was also a factor in the prefixes allomorphy. There were two 'classes'(again, to make things easier to explain) of Fricative (voiceless ones) Initial verbs, the 'Weak Fricative Roots' that always stayed as fricatives, and the 'Strong Fricative Roots' that underwent fortition to plosives under many environments (and came historically from aspirated plosives and /q/)(hereafter abbreviated to WF Roots and SF Roots; in the lexicon fricative initial verbs will be noted for WFR or SFR)
|Irrealis||*-p; hup; häp; hap *|
The irrealis marker had multiple forms due to vowel harmony. It was affected by Backness harmony, as all words are, and it was also affected by height harmony, if the last vowel before it was a low vowel it harmonized. The expected *-hyp surfaced as -p.
Ancient Rrahah experienced two major changes from Proto-Gigxkpoyan, a degree of semantic shift happened in the Causative Voice and Ancient Rrahah developed a new Reflexive/Reciprocal voice.
The suffix that formed the Passive voiced had the forms *-ja and *-jä, when added, the passive suffixes rounded the preceding vowel.
Passive forms were fully functional verbs.
The Proto-Gigxkpoyan Causative accumulated Applicative meanings in some verbs, being now Causative in some verbs and applicative in others, but these two classes were not mutually exclusive.
It was formed trough the addction of *-ta *-tä *-huta *-hata or *-hätä
|-hata||after o and a|
|-hätä||after e, ø and ä|
This also formed a fully functional verb
The Reflexive Voice patterns with the Insubordination Processes and will be described with them.
It was used for reflexive and reciprocal actions, where the subjects remained in the accusative case.
When used with plural subjects or more than one argument, it seems that a reciprocal meaning has usually assumed rather rhan a reflexive one.
Negation was realized trough prefixes attached to the verb. As opposed to the original Proto-Gigxkpoyan the negative is now a free form.
The negative prefix(recessive) could take on the forms of *ku- *kä- *ka- *ky- *kuhu- *kähä- and *kaha-. Again i'll be organizing a chart for the environments.
It causes Fortition in SF Roots
|ku-||Before SF Roots with syllables with u|
|kä-||Before SF Roots with syllables with e, ø or ä|
|ka-||Before SF Roots with syllables with o or a|
|ky-||Before all syllables with i or y|
|kuhu-||Before all other syllables with u|
|kaha-||Before all other syllables with o or a|
|kähä-||Before all other syllables with e, ø or ä|
The Subordinators formed verb forms that could not be used in main clauses by themselves, happening in subordinate clauses
|*e-; *he-;||Relativizer||Can be applied to all Aspects.|
|*tu- *ty- *ta- *tä-||Counterfactual||Applies to the Irrealis|
|*sä-||Simultaneous||Applies to the Progressive|
|*jøŋ-; *jøj-; *jø-||Sequential||Applies to the Irrealis|
|*ekaj-||Conditional||Applies to the Perfect|
Each of those will have it's usage and allomorphs described separately below
When used in conjunction with the negative marker this usually preceded it.
The Relativizer was used in relative clauses and has an almost adjectival function. If could be applied to all Aspects.
Caused Fortition in SF Roots.
As it's only vowel is a neutral one it didn't affect Vowel Harmony.
Used to express absurd conditions (e.g. If i were king i'd be happy.)
Does not cause Fortition in SF Roots.
It's prefixes are Recessive.
It's allomorphs are very transparent Vowel Harmony dependent forms.
Used to express simultaneous actions
Does not cause fortition in SFR
It is a Dominant Prefix and has no allomorphs
Used for actions occurring as a sequence without any conditional implications of one action on another.
Causes fortition in SFR and is a dominant prefix.
|*jøŋ-||Before plosives and SF Roots.|
|*jøj-||Before WF Roots, Approximants and l, with approximants the Approximant is deleted.|
|*jø-||Before Voiced Fricatives.|
Probably marked absolute conditions (e.g. If (or when) water heats up, it boils)
Dominant prefix with no Allomorphs; it did not cause fortition in SFR.
Insubordinations strategies are essentially ways to use Subordinated verb forms in Main Clauses.
The two constructions that could be reconstructed are the Reflexive Voice and the Necessitative Mood
The reflexive voice is formed by having a verb in the simultaneous form be used with the verb *cu. As that form cannot sustain further conjugation, the conjugation is made on the auxiliar *cu. An example:
säfysyrt cuj løhejä sä-fysy-rt cu-j lø-hejä SIM-wash-PRO auxiliar-PERF ACC-3P he/she/it/them washed (him/her/it/them)self(ves)
Meaning something like english must, have to (or Japanese -なければいけません)
It was formed by having a Conditional + Negative used in conjunction with the adverb thanku (now); It normally referred to future statements and could not be further conjugated.
ekajkacoj thanku king ekaj-ka-co-j thanku king COND-NEG-walk-PERF now 1PS i have to walk
Some rather hairy constructions could be done if one were to combine both insubordination strategies:
säfysyrt ekajkacuj thanku løkyng sä-fysy-rt ekaj-ka-cu-j thanku lø-kyng SIM-wash-PRO COND-NEG-aux-PERF now ACC-1PS I have to wash myself
Infinitives were used when the clause was used as an argument of another clause and as Imperatives In order to form the Infinitive form, the verbs root underwent vowel changes in their final vowel:
|y i e||i|
That's the general vowel alternation chart, Vowel Harmony could however mess up with this chart, generating fully 'harmonized' outcomes:
|y i ø||i|
|u i e||i|
This is common with the Infinitives of Passive and Causative forms, as they undergo vowel harmony
Another complication are the roots in a, as they can generate infinitives in either u or ä and are completely unpredictable.
Here again the Passive and Causative Infinitives are example, the Passive form generates an Infinitive in u, and the Causative generates an Infinite in ä.
In the lexicon roots in a will be noted as either a1 (Infinitive in in u) or a2 (Infinitive in ä).
Ancient Rrahah developed a healthy amount of cases, coming mostly from PG prepositions. The cases were marked through proclitics, that are all Dominant (i.e. dictate the roots vowel realisation).
As those cases are a comparatively recent innovation they are all regular do not seem to have displayed allomorphy.
The accusative is older than the other markers and behaves like a true affix, before nouns starting with e, it became løhø- and the e disapeared (etoj -> løhøtøj). It was the only one which triggered vowel harmony.
These clitics atached to the first element of the NP.
Ancient Rrahah nouns also displayed a construct case independent or case marked by the prefix -jun. It signaled that that noun was possessed by the following noun.
kapangpajun Rrahah kapangpa-jun rrahah language-CONSTRUCT rrahah Language of Rrahah
Ancient Rrahah also displayed a number of prepositions, some with rather specific meaning.
Some examples are: ju (on top), khir (below), epah (behind), kicin (in the front of), kunujs (in the inside of), con (out of), humt (for (a time period). Those are just some examples.
These prepositions came before nouns, and were used with the lative and locative cases. Which preposition was used which case seems to have been dialectal at best and no patterns could be reconstructed.
Definiteness and QuantifiersEdit
Ancient Rrahah nouns are all uncountable and require quantifiers to be counted. The regular quantifiers for 'one' probably signaled indefinite nouns, while the definite article ingpi marks a singular definite noun (e.g. ingpi ser, the (one) tree). Ingpi occupies the quantifier slot in the noun phrase. Case clitics do not attach to quantifiers.
Quantifiers up to 10 are irregular for the most common quantifiers and a chart containing them is below.
Larger quantifiers were formed by suffixing the number to the compounding form.
There were other, less usual, quantifiers, but those were completely regular (i.e. compounding form + number always)
Adjectives did not display any agreement nor verbal morphology. Most nouns could operate as adjectives and vice-versa, but many words operated almost solely as adjectives.
Adverbs are formed by adding -ku.
|Quantifiers||Prepositions||Case Clitics||Noun||Genitive||Adjective||Relative Clause|
The normal word order was VSO. Adverbs may come directly after the verb.
The exception is that relative clauses have SVO word order.