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Ancient Ljen
Ljen
Ljenarea
Pronunciation [lʲɛn]
Period 7000BK - 5000BK
Spoken in Nautli Island
Total speakers Ljen People
Writing system none
Classification Nautlic Languages
Typology
Basic word order Unknown
Morphology synthetic
Alignment nom-acc
Credits
Created by Creyeditor

Ancient Ljen is a Nautli Language that was once spoken in the souwthwestern part of Nautli Island. It is a direct descendant of Proto-Nautli.

Phonology Edit

Segmental Inventories Edit

Ancient Ljen has lost the retroflex series of Proto-Nautli and the pharyngealization contrast has become one of palatalization. The pharyngeal consonants however where retained. The romanization is given, where it differs from the IPA. Palatalization is always written as ⟨j⟩.

Consonant phoneme inventory of Ancient Ljen
Labial Alveolar Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosives p pʲ t tʲ k kʲ
Nasals n nʲ ŋ ⟨ng⟩
s sʲ ʕ ⟨x⟩ ʕʷ ⟨xv⟩ h
l lʲ w ⟨v⟩

The vowel system of Ancient Ljen only has some traces of the Nautlic Vowel Harmony. The tense-lax contrast is only visible in the mid vowels. Additionally nasal vowels have developed as morphologically conditioned allophones. Romanization is given where it is different from IPA.

Ancient Ljen Vowel Invenory
Front F. Nasal Central C. Nasal Back B. Nasal
High i ĩ u  ũ
Tense mid e ⟨é⟩ ẽ ⟨ẽ́⟩ o ⟨ó⟩ õ ⟨ṍ⟩
Lax mid ɛ ⟨e⟩ ɛ̃ ⟨ẽ⟩ ɔ ⟨o⟩ ɔ̃ ⟨õ⟩
Low a ã

Stress and Phonotactics Edit

Stress is either on the ultimate syllable or on the penultimate syllable. Ultimate stress is indicated by a grave accent. If a tense mid vowel is stressed, it is written with an circumflex accent. Stressed vowels are never nasalized.

Between two unstressed vowels, there is only a limited set of single consonants [ʕ],[h] and [w]. Clusters can occur.

Allophonic and Morphophonological Rules Edit

Because of the phonotactic constraint against certain consonants in between unstressed vowels, sometimes a consonant has to be deleted or changed, e.g. if the syllable count is changed by adding an affix. The specific result depends on etymological and phonological properties of the noun. This can also lead to the above mentioned nasal vowels.

Morphology Edit

Ancient Ljen has lost the dual and plural morphemes of Proto-Nautli. Instead the collective marker is used as the sole marker of plurality.

Most of the cases, especially the locatives remain or are expanded in their meanings. The instrumental case can now be used as a dative case, the ablative case can be used to indicate a reason. All the locative cases can be used for temporal expressions to. Here is a an overview of the different meanings of the oblique cases.

Cases and their meanings in Ancient Ljen
Case Spatial Meaning Temporal Meaning Other Meaning
Instrumental

with s.o.

near s.th

while s.th

during s.th

to s.o.

using s.th

Punctual exactly at s.th

when ...

just as ...

instead of s.th
Genitive from s.o. just after s.th of s.o.
Allative to s.th until s.th for a goal
Ablative from s.th after s.th 'cause of s.th
Adessive on s.th at a certain point

by s.th

with.sth

Inessive inside s.th in a certain period under a circumstance
Subessive under s.th before despite s.th
Superessive over s.th long after with a consequence

Noun Declension patterns are actually rather irregular because of the restriction on consonants between unstressed syllables. As you can see in the following example, the accusative is indicated by a stress shift, which causes a stem consonant mutation. The above mentioned allophonic rule also causes a lot more mutation, especially when it appears with a stress shift, and/or multiple affixes.

Declension of léljín - 'cat'
Singular Plural
Nominative léljin uléljin
Accusative léljìn uxéljìn
Instrumental léinjìk uxéinjìk
Genitive léljinul uxéljinul
Punctual léljinit uxéljinit
Allative léinjìl uxéinjìl
Ablative léljissóh uxéljissóh
Adessive léljinna uxéljinna
Inessive léljivvu uxéljìvvu
Superessive léljinnél uxéljinnél
Subessive léljillóv uxéljillóv
Declension of nas - eye
Singular Plural
Nominative nas unas
Accusative nas unàs
Instrumental nasìk ũxasìk
Genitive nasul unasul
Punctual nasit unasit
Allative nasìl ũxasìl
Ablative nasoh unasoh
Adessive nanna unanna
Inessive narru unarru
Superessive nannél unannél
Subessive nallór unallór

Vocabulary Edit

cat - PN: *lxejeen - léljin

language - PN:*jănxă - ljen

eye - PN:*nxasx 'sun' - nas

child - PN:*jăngvi 'daughter' - ljeng

murder - PN:*qong 'death' - xóng

to destroy - PN:*qòrtul 'to eat' - xovtól

dog - PN:*jikvò 'dog' - ljék

measure - PN:*pèlik 'finger' - pjeljék

inflammation - PN: *olxes 'fire' - ólés

fear - PN:*neen 'freeze' - njín

bunch - PN:*vèstu 'hand' - vjest

head - PN:*vòqvă - vox

1SG - PN: *pi - pji