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Ancient Dane
Dane
Danearea
Pronunciation [ɾanə]
Period 7000BK - 5000BK
Spoken in Southern small Nautlic Islands
Total speakers Ancient Dane People
Writing system none
Classification Nautli Languages
Typology
Basic word order S first
Morphology agglutinating
Alignment split-erg
Credits
Created by Creyeditor

Ancient Dane is a Nautli language, that was once spoken on the southern small Island of the Nautlic Islands. It is a direct descendant of Proto-Nautli.

Phonology Edit

The consonant inventory of Ancient Dane lost the pharyngealization contrast, but expanded the labialization contrast and the retroflex series. As for the romanization, labialization is always written as ⟨v⟩, retroflex consonants are romanized as their alveolar counterparts followed by an ⟨r⟩. Other differences from the IPA are given in the table. Where there are two consonants in a cell, the right one is labialized.

Consonant Phoneme Inventory of Ancient Dane
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Velar Glottal
Plosives p pʷ t tʷ ʈ ʈʷ k kʷ
Nasals n nʷ ɳ ɳʷ ŋ ŋʷ ⟨ng⟩
Fricatives s sʷ ʂ ʂʷ h
Taps

ɾ ɾʷ ⟨d⟩

ɽ ɽʷ
Approximants ɻ ɻʷ ⟨r⟩ w ⟨v⟩
Lateral A.'s l lʷ

The vowel system is reduced to a three vowel system, but kept the tense-lax harmony. Tense high vowels in Proto-Nautli were diphthongized.

Vowel Phoneme Inventory of Ancient Dane
Front Central Back
High tense i ⟨í⟩ u ⟨ú⟩
High lax ɪ ⟨i⟩ ʊ ⟨u⟩
Mid ə ⟨e⟩
Low lax ɐ ⟨a⟩
Low tense a ⟨á⟩
Diphthongs ai ⟨áí⟩ au ⟨áú⟩

Stress is usually on the penultimate sylllable. Unstressed lax vowels are reduced to schwa.

Morphology Edit

Ancient Dane kept all the number distinctions of Proto-Nautli. The grammatical core case system was reduced, while the locative system was expanded. Stacked case morphemes were reanalyzed as new cases.

The forms on the left are used for tense stems, the ones on the right are used for lax stems.

Locative case suffixes
at to from
on -ná / -ne -nádí / -nade -náhúh / -naheh
in -ráú / -re -ráúdí / -rude -ráúheh / -ruheh
over -níl / -nel -níláídí / -nelide -níhsúh / -nahseh
under -lúr / -lr -lúráídi / -lride -lúsrúh / -lasreh

There are three core cases in Ancient Dane. The nominative is the most unmarked case. It is used for subjectives in most contexts. It is also used for objects in non-embedded clauses, when the subject is inanimate. The accusative ist used for objects in all other contexts. The Instrumental case is used for possessor, instruments, companions and inanimate subnjects in non-embedded clauses. In the following table you can see the relevant morphemes.

Core Cases in Ancient Dane
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative none

-áún / náún

-en / -nen

-úk / -núk

-ek / -nek

Accusative

-áí / -l

-e / -l

-áún-ál / -náún-ál

-un-el / -nun-el

-úl / -núl

-el / -nel

Instrumental

-áíkí / -kí

-ike / -ke

-áún-áíkí / -náún-áíkí

-en-ike / -nen-ike

-únkí / -núnkí

-anke / -nanke

Syntax Edit

Ancient Dane had two very prominent and similar syntactic processes: unmarked passive and topicalization.

Unmarked passives are formed by simply deleting the agent of a sentence. This usually leads to a sentence, that does not begin with the subject.

Topicalization moves the subject or a non-argument to the sentence initial position. This is also accompanied by a special intonation: the pitch drops after the topic and starts to rise with the following word, staying level after reaching the unmarked pitch.

Vocabulary Edit

cat - PN:*lxejeen - lídáín

crab - PN:*jangè - dange

daughter - PN:*jăngvi - dangve

day - PN:* theneeth - trínítr

death - PN:*qong - úng

dog - PN:*jikvò - dikve

to eat - PN:*qòrtul - atrel

finger - PN:*pèlik - palek

fire - PN:*olxes - álíh

freeze - PN:*neen - náín

hand - PN:*vèstu - vahte

top - PN:*vòqvă 'head'- vave

heart - PN:*qvikăh - vikeh

grass - PN:*nxaroo - náráú

language - PN:*jănxă - dane

life - PN:*tlaral - tlárál

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