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Akankule
Pronunciation /akan'kole/
Period  ? - now
Spoken in Akankule river area, Great Whale Island
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system None
Classification Kaltek-Akankule?
Typology
Basic word order SVO
Morphology agglutinating
Alignment active-stative(on verbal agreements)/neutral(on nouns)
Credits
Created by k1234567890y

The Akankule language is the language spoken by the Akankule people, it is the only non-Akuri language that is still spoken on the Great Whale Island.

Despite only spoken in several remote villages in the Akankule river area, and being heavily influenced by surrounding Akuri languages of Akur peoples, the use of the Akankule language is robust, it is learned and used by all age groups of the Akankule people.

PhonologyEdit

consonants
labials dentoalveolars palatals velars/glottals
nasals m n
plosives p b t d k
fricatives s h
sonorants w l j
  • There's a tendency to pronunce /l/ as a non-lateral dentoalveolar sonorant
  • in syllable final position, /t/ and /l/ tend to merge.
  • /h/ might be pronunced as [ɣ] between vowels.
vowels
front central back
high i u
mid ə
low a
  • There's a tendency to pronounce /u/ as [o], and to pronounce /ə/ as [e], and as suggested by the pronunciation of some recent borrowings, this vowel shift occured pretty recently and has only influenced some dialects.

syllable structure: (C)V(C), voiced plosives are de-voiced in syllable codas.

GrammarEdit

SyntaxEdit

  • Basic word order: SVO(Subject-Verb-Object)(may shift to OV when the subject is omitted)

Nominal morphologyEdit

Nouns don't decline according to cases or gender, but decline according to possession:

  • 1.sg: ana-(stem)
  • 2.sg: p(ə)-(stem)
  • 3.sg: (stem)
  • 1.pl: an(ə)-(stem)-ə
  • 2.pl: p(ə)-(stem)-ə
  • 3.pl: s(ə)-(stem)-ə

Besides possession, nouns also decline according to definiteness, definite pronouns are followed by the suffix -t or -ət

Verbal morphologyEdit

the Akankule language is an active-stative language, intransitive use different verbal prefixes according to different tense-aspect-moods and the agentivity and person of the subject:

Class I prefix:

  • 1.sg: mi-(stem)
  • 2.sg: ti-(stem)
  • 3.sg: (stem)
  • 1.pl: ni-(stem)-ə
  • 2.pl: si-(stem)-ə
  • 3.pl: (stem)-ə

Class II prefix:

  • 1.sg: ana-(stem)
  • 2.sg: pu-(stem)
  • 3.sg: (stem)
  • 1.pl: an-(stem)-ə
  • 2.pl: pi-(stem)-ə
  • 3.pl: si-(stem)-ə

The Class I prefixes are used when the subject is perceived to be more "patient-like"; while the Class II prefixes are used when the subject is perceived to be more "agent-like".

The Class I prefixes and the Class II prefixes are not used at the same time, in transitive verbs, the use of the agreement prefixes follows the following rules:

  • Personal Hierarchy: 1st person > 2nd person > 3rd person
  • Agentive Hierarchy: Agent > Patient
  • Personal Hierarchy > Agentive Hierarchy

personal agreements are followed by the tense-aspect-mood prefixes:

  • present(probably imperfective): (none)
  • past(probably perfective): da-
  • subjunctive: du-

PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns:

  • 1.SG: mi
  • 2.SG: ti
  • 3.SG: i
  • 1.PL: nə
  • 2.PL: sə
  • 3.PL: ya

Demonstratives(also used as pronouns):

  • this/here: ə
  • that/there: tə
  • here: in
  • there: tun

Interrogatives:

  • who?: kə
  • what?: ku
  • where?: kun
  • when?: təkə
  • how?: akə
  • which?: tukə
  • why?: kur

ExamplesEdit

  • anamikal ti - ana-mikal ti - 1.SG.A-see 2.SG - I see you
  • ti mimikal - ti mi-mikal - 2.SG 1.SG.P-see - you see me(*mi pimikal is ungrammatical)
  • simikalə - si-mikal-ə - 3.PL.A-see-PL - they see him/her/it
  • dut dakuma an tuhal - du-t da-kuma an tuhal - person-DEF PST-catch one fish - the peson caught a fish