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Classical Aiok was spoken in the period of 7500-6500 BK in the Western Nautli Islands.

(Classical) Aiok
Aiok
Pronunciation [ajok]
Period 7500-6500BK
Spoken in Nautli Islands
Total speakers 15000
Writing system Latin alphabet
Classification Fluatian languages
Typology
Basic word order VS
Morphology agglutinating-fusional
Alignment only intransitives
Credits
Created by vyndesskays

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

bilabial alveolar lateral/palatal velar glottal
Plosives & Affricates plain ejective plain ejective plain ejective plain ejective
p p' t, d t' c͡ʎ̥

<tl>

c͡ʎ̥'

<tl'>

k k' ʔ

<'>

Ingressive Plosives (realised as Clicks) ǀ

<t~>

<n~>

ǀk'

<k~'>

ǁ

<tl~>

ǁk'

<tl~'>

Nasals m n ŋ

<ng>

Fricatives s ɬ~ʎ̥

<l>

x
Ingressive Fricatives ↓s

↓ɬ

<l~>

↓x

<x~>

VowelsEdit

front back
high i, í, ì,, i:, í:, ì: o, ó, ò, o:, ó:, ò:
mid/low e, é, è, e:, é:, è: a á, à, a:, á:, à:

All vocalic phonemes can be traced back to the following constituents: /i e a o/.

Syllable structure Edit

The syllable structure conforms always to (C)(C)(C)(C)CVVV(C). The syllable has a three-vowel underlying nucleus which generates the superficial nucleus

The possible nuclei are represented in the following table. The three-vocalic nucleus generates the vowel phonemes, the palatal approximant, and tone.

underlying nucleus

(=superficial nucleus of Proto-Fluati)

superficial nucleus
a e i o a e i o
aaa eaa iaa oaa a: ea ja wa:
aae eae iae oae á:
aai eai iai oai ai ei ì ai
aao eao iao oao à: ò
aea eea iea oea á e je oe
aee eee iee oee ae: e: je: we:
aei eei iei oei áj é:
aeo eeo ieo oeo áo è:
aia eia iia oia aja eja ì: oja
aie eie iie oie aje é ie oje
aii eii iii oii aji éi i: ói
aio eio iio oio ajo ejo í: o
aoa eoa ioa ooa à è jo ò:
aoe eoe ioe ooe a e i ó
aoi eoi ioi ooi ài èi í ó:
aoo eoo ioo ooo ào èo o:

Example:

Syllable structure and glossing:

s~/'aii    naee-seaep  aiok.
  2.Sgspeak good-very  Aiok
phonetic realization:
[↓sǀk'ai  nae:seáp  ajok]



"You speak very well Aiok"

The reason to state the three pre-established nucelus-vowels helps to understand the intricate morphology. Once kept in mind about which three vowels underlies which vowel, the morphology is easier to grasp.

Pronouns Edit

Pronouns appear when distinction is required.

underlying nucleus superficial nucleus
1 ʔiee ʔje:
2 s//aai s//ai
3 ŋiai ŋì
1+2 moaed moád
1+3 tiaong tjàng
2+3 t'iai t'ì
3+3 ↓xk'oao ↓xk'ò

Verb Edit

Conjugation Edit

Verbs conjugate only in person. Plural person is expressed by the combination of person markers. There is no third person morpheme, the verb remains the same as in the infinitive, which actually is a noun.

intransitives "to go fishing"

niaad

[njad]

"to sit near the fire"

p'aiok

[p'ajok]

"to read"

soaetl

[soác͡ʎ̥]

1 Person CiVVC niaad

[njad]

p'iiok

[p'ík]

siaetl

[sjác͡ʎ̥]

2 Person ↓s↓CaVVC ↓sǀaaad

[↓sǀa:d]

↓sp'aiok

[↓sp'ajok]

↓s↓saaetl

[↓s↓sá:c͡ʎ̥]

1+2 Person ↓s↓CiVVC ↓sǀiaad

[↓sǀjad]

↓sp'iiok

[↓sp'ík]

↓s↓siaetl

[↓s↓sjác͡ʎ̥]

3 (+3) Person CVVVC (plain) niaad

[njad]

p'aiok

[p'ajok]

soaetl

[soác͡ʎ̥]

3(Pl) +1 Person CoVVC noaad

[nwa:d]

p'oiok

[p'ok]

soaetl

[soác͡ʎ̥]

2+3 (Pl) Person ↓s↓CoVVC ↓sǀoaad

[↓sǀwa:d]

↓sp'oiok

[↓sp'ok]

↓s↓soaetl

[↓s↓soác͡ʎ̥]

Summary of building elements:

1 2 3 (+3) 1+2 3 +1 2+3
iVV s~C~aVV no change s~C~iVV oVV s~C~oVV

Since each verb's nucleus vowels are part of the lexicon, there is much syncretism between the infinitive and certain conjugated forms. To distinguish them, the pronoun is put after the verb:

niaad 'ieed      "I go fishing"
niaad           "to go fishing" 
p'aiok  ngiai    "he/she/it sits near the fire" 
p'aiok  x~k'oao  "they sit near the fire"
p'aiok            "to sit near the fire"

Transitives Edit

A transitive verb formally consists of a two intransitives-compound, as the following example clarifies:

eat= eat(actor)+vanish(undergoer)

[njadse:n àoki:]
niaad-seeen    aookiii
1/eat-3/vanish fish 
'I eat fish' 

love= love (tioid)+ be.affected (loaa)

[tísǁa:]
tioid-s~l~aaa 
1/love-2.be.affected 
'I love you' 

Notice the metathesis from ds~l~ to stl~ for euphonic means. The second verb in the compounds may realize clicks, but not ingressive fricatives.

Focus construction Edit

The fact that each role is clearly defined for grammatical relations makes it possible to interchange the positions of each verb compounds. This is done to emphasize.

 [↓s↓ɬa:tíd]
s~l~aaa-tioid
 2/be.affected-1/love
"It is me that I love you" 

That means, the argument coded in the second verb of the compound is typically focused.

Let's do an example with the verb to hit, which in aiok is semantically split into hit+feel pain. Evidently, this is only used for entities that feel pain.

Transitive conjugation with undergoer in focus (default) Edit

actor

(tleai)

hit

1 2
undergoer

(xeaa)

feel.pain

1 tliai-xiaa

[c͡ʎ̥ìxja]

I hit myself

s~tl~aai-xiaa

[↓sǁaixja]

You hit me

2 tliai-sxaaa

[c͡ʎ̥ìsxa:]

I hit you

s~tl~aai-sxaaa

[↓sǁaisxa:]

You hit yourself

3 tliai-xeaa

[c͡ʎ̥ìxea]

I hit him/her/it/them

s~tl~aai-xeaa

[↓sǁaixea]

You hit her/him/it/them

1+2 tliai-sxiaa

[c͡ʎ̥ìsxja]

I hit you and myself

s~tl~aai-sxiaa

[↓sǁaisxja]

you hit yourself and me

1+3 tliai-xoaa

[c͡ʎ̥ìxwa]

I hit myself and hr/him/it/them

s~tl~aai-xoaa

[↓sǁaixwa]

you hit me and her/him/it/them

2+3 tliai-sxoaa

[c͡ʎ̥ìsxwa]

I hit you and her/him/it/them

s~tl~aai-sxoaa

[↓sǁaisxwa]

you hit yourself and her/him/it/them

Space, Time and Definiteness Deixis Edit

Aiok combines space-related, time-related and definiteness-related deictic elements in one form. It appears as an additional clitic to the word, regardless of a noun/verb distinction.

DEFINITE

PRESENT PAST FUTURE
between us (here) (D1) --- k'= (xiiad) k'= (='oei')
not between us but visible (≈here/there) (D2) ng= k'= (=teeas) ng= (=liaed)
not visible (≈over there) (D3) ng= ng= (=tiii) k'= (=liaed)

INDEFINITE

PRESENT

PAST

FUTURE

between us (here) (D1) l= lk' l= ('oei')
not between us but visible (≈here/there) (D2) l= lk' s=
not visible (≈over there) (D3) l= l= (=tiii) s=

Examples:

Allophonic variation of personal affixes with tense and deictic proclitica:

1 2 3(+3) 1+2 3+1 2+3
--- CiVV s~C~aVV CVVV s~CiVV CoVV s~Co~VV
(l)k'= (l)k'C'iVV (~l)k'p'C'VVV (l)k'C'VVV (~l)k'p'C'iVV (l)k'C'oVV (l)k'p'C'oVV
ng= ngCiVV mCVVV ngCVVV mCiVV ngCoVV mCoVV
l= lioe[1]CVVV l~C~aVV lCVVV l~ioeC~VVV loioCVVV l~oioC~VVV
s= sioeCVVV saoeCVVV sCVVV sioepCVVV soioCVVV soiopCVVV

The table does not render analogical combination, Aiok has therefore a fusional and redundant conjugation pattern, eg:

redundant person marking and fusional marking:

~lk'p'tl'aai
~-lk'-p'-tl<'>aai  
2-D1/2.PST.INDEF-2-worry<2>

'somewhere here you have been worrying about'

Further examples:

nouns:
maoin: the bed here and now
lmaoin: a bed now
lk'miin: some bed of mine here and now.
phrases:
toaa "go" --> ng=toaa=liaed "go in the future not between us" --> ng=t<i>aa=liaed "I'll go here".
     dieap "lay"--> k'=dieap=liaed "lie in the future over there --> k'=dieap=liaed='iee "I'll lie overthere."
  'aiek  "suits" k'='aiek=liaed "suits in the future over there--> k'aiek'liaed "It will suit over there."
  maoin "bed"
     
     ngtiaaliaed k'dieapliaed k'aiek'liaed maoin. 
  
     Redundant inner-compound clitics are factored out:
  
     -->[ngtiaa'(liaed) k'=[[dieap(=liaed)(='iee)(k'=)'aiek]liaed] --> ngtiaak'dieap'aiek'liaed

ngtiaak'dieap'aiekliaed maoin "I'm going to bed" ("I will go here, lay there, it will suit there, the bed)

[ngtjàk'djep'ajekljád màin.]

Text Sample Edit

< l~k'p'tl'aai nieeeseeen kaaipiia nlk'eeaptiion toaiseaod l~tl~iaadiaa? ngxliood saao?oao?iiatiaon ltl'iiid.>

↓ɬk'p'c͡ʎ̥'aai nieeseeen kaaipiia nɬk'eeaptiion toaiseaod ↓ɬǁiaadiiaʔ  ŋxɬiood saaoʔoaoʔiiatiaon ɬc͡ʎ̥'iiid.

[↓ɬk'p'c͡ʎ̥'ai nje:se:n kaipì: nɬk'eptí:n taisèad ↓ɬǁjadì:ʔ  ŋxɬìod sà:ʔòʔì:tjàn ɬc͡ʎ̥'i:d.]

Notes and ReferencesEdit

  1. lioe renders [li]. the short vowels indicating conjugations are actually an externalization of the first nucleme, that means. The other both nuclemes of "lioe" are therefore a system-bound illusion in classical Aiok.