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Itka

Ītkā

Pronunciation [i:tka:]
Period 6600/5300
Spoken in Nautli Islands
Total speakers 230.000
Writing system Latin alphabet
Classification Fluatian languages
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology agglutinating-fusional
Alignment ergative-absolutive
Credits
Created by vyndesskays

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The Consonants were dramatically reduced in contrast to Aiok.

Some changes:

dental click --> tk

ingressives: (i/o)h

x--> h

ng--> n

lateral fricative ---> l

bilabial dental lateral velar glottal
Plosives p t, d tˡ <tl> k ʔ <'>
Double articulated tk

ǁk <c>

Sonorants m n l
Fricatives s h

VowelsEdit

front back
high i, i: o, o:
mid/low e, e: a a:
Aiok nuclei Itka nuclei
a: ea ja wa: a: e ia a:o
á: a: e ia o
ai ei ì ai ei e i ai
à: ò a: e ia o
á e je oe a e ie o
ae: e: je: we: ai: e: ie: e:o
áj é: a e: ie o
áo è: a e: i o
aja eja ì: oja a: ei i: ao
aje é ie oje a:i e i eo
aji éi i: ói ai e i: oi
ajo ejo í: o aio ei i: o
à è jo ò: a e io o:
a e i ó a e i o
ài èi í ó: a e i o:
ào èo o: a e i o:

Verb structure Edit

Do you remember the strange conjugation of the motherlanguage Aiok? It coded only intransitives through prefixes and infixes. With Itka, the former construction, where two verbs should built up one event merged into a single complex. Thereby, the end of the result of the concept was taken as the base, and the origin as an additional derivation feature, which introduces the agent. Also, the stem-internal operation from Aiok is gone in Itka, because it has lost the tones and therefore the trace from the three-vocalic-nucleus as a grammatical device.

As to the order, the order Causerevent - Causeeevent has been generalized. Therefore, one cannot change the order like in Aiok (Caussee-event Causerevent) to add pragmatic meaning (focus constructions).

Classical Aiok:

Classical Aiok

Translation

Itka cognate

Translation

tíd love.source ti- with love (preverb)
lwa: be.affected lāo be.affected
tíd

1sg.love

I love ti-h-ca

with love-1.A-2O.affected

feeling-1sg

I love you
s~tl~a:

2sg.love

you are affected
p'ík I sit near the fire ispaiok I lives in
s~p'ajok you sit near the fire capaiok you live in
s~p'ajok ng='tea (it.is-near.but.not.between.us) at~atlèotlid you sit near the fire near At~atlèotlid il-te-ca-paiok alkatletli

PRS.there-ADV.loc-2sg-live

I live there alkatletli

≈"Alcatletli makes me live here."

The continuous use of only intransitive verbs (also with prepositions) has cause the transitivization of local predicates (in the last example, the verb "not been between each other" has been incorporated and reanalized as a preverb which causes the last event to be.)

Itka's univerbation of Aiok material resulted in a slot scheme which can be well defined:

definitness time space instrumental/theme preverb transitivizer,

lexical/locational preverb

transitive

subjects

or local arguments

intransitive

subjects

or transitive

objects

STEM

(static events

or causee events)

-- : (def) (ni[1])

(pres)

-- (between) 1&2 so- t- (by good feelings) (i)h- (1sg) (i)s- (l)āo (be.affected, feel pain)
li- (indef) ki (pst) (i)n- (not visible) tle-(by hurting) (a)s- (2sg) c(a)- (2sg) ās (be.eaten)
si (fut) (i)l- (not visible) te- (being near) ni- (3sg) --- (3sg) ...
tka (by biting) o(k) (3+1/2) o- (3+1/2) nias (go)
hk (3+3) oh- (3+3)

Examples Edit

nisnias ni(pres)-is(1sg)-nias(walk) I am walking.

kitlehcās ki(pst)-tle(hurt)-ih(1sg)-ca(2sg)-ās I ate you (cannibalism)

kitasisās ki(pst)-ti(love)-as(2sg)-is(1sg)-ās You ate me (≈kissed me)

liltecapaiok? li(INDEF)il(NOTVISIBLE)te(NEAR)ca(2sg)paiok(live) Where do you live? ("You live near, we cannot see it, the action of living is indefinite")

iltespaiok alcatletli. I live in Alcatletli.

likitleslāo ca? li(indef)ki(pst)tle(byhitting)as(2sg)lā(feel.pain) "What/Whom did you hit?"

likitlehohlāo ih limana' adanitkahkislāo.

li-ki-tle-ih-oh-lāo ih li-mana' ada=ni-tka-hk-is-lāo

indef-pst-hit-1sg-3p-pain 1sg indef-bug reason=pres-bite-3p-1sg-pain

"I killed the bugs because they were biting me."

Notes and References
  1. ni is inserted when there are two zero morphemes (definite and between 1&2 in the other deixeis)